Training Britta Steffen (’09 World Champ in Women’s 50 & 100 Free) by Norbert Warnatzch (2010)


Thank you very much for the invitation to talk about my experience or our experience. My background very short I am 63 years old and a coach since 1970, so 40 years. Look at my face I am old, but forget it, I am still young because I work together with a lot of younger athletes so I am not in the way to be old inside, I am still young and I have to learn also here and also for the future. About Britta some short background, she is 27 of age, 26 of age this year she will be 27 of age, she has a body height of a 1.80meters and her body weight specially, especially run she is on her highest shape just about 60 or 61 kilograms. We worked together since 2002 and our relationship is very tight, I mean, she trust me and I trust her, so the relationship is very familiar or may be like daughter and father. She trains in a group in a group of about 10 athletes, especially most of them are boys, next time I have some girls. So the trouble will come when we have some more girls in the group.

So, I am really excited because I am little bit afraid, you don’t understand what I tried to say, please if you don’t understand rise up your arms and ask, and I think the best way is now to start. I tried to show you what I did or what we did in the last years, before I have to explain some parts of training because I think it’s important. I show you the next file and in this file I show you the parts of training, what we did and the kilometers or hours or intensity and the [German] [00:03:00], it means some total weeks how many weeks we train in a year or in the season. Water, it means water training and hours some total water training. Land or dry land some total dry land training and together water training and dry land training, some total water training and dry land training. Water training we have, some parts kilometers shore, it means some total kilometers. GR1, it’s a special word for aerobic training, the lactate concentration should be between 2 and 4 milli-mole per liter, it means in kilometer and one [German] [00:03:56] long, some total some aerobic training lactate 4 to 6. Sprint, it means speed sprint training [German] [00:04:08] and [German] [00:04:10], it means speed endurance training lactate 6 to 10. Anaerobic training, it means lactate more than 10 and then compensation some total warm and warm-up and swim down lactate less 2. A dry land, [German] [00:04:35], it means some total general universal power strength training, physical strength training, [German] [00:04:47] it means some total specific power strength training, pull machines or in this case Brenda result pull machines she did only jump training. Stretching a day [German] [00:05:02] stretching and [German] [00:05:05], it means body stabilization, abdomen and back muscles, that’s what we need to go to the next information.

Now I’ll show you last year’s, what we did, back to the explanation. in the year and the season 2002-2003, we trained 46-weeks, we made 645-hours water the training and 285-hours of dryland training. Altogether, 863.5-hours the whole season. And kilometers, some of the kilometers, it was 1474-kilometers and now the part aerobic training 57.9 percent plus 853 kilometers, GR2 it means training aerobic training or border aerobic anaerobic lactate 4 to 6. Sprint speed training, speed sprint endurance and that’s mostly competitions, 15.8-kilometers compensation, it means swim down and warm up, that’s the part of water training and dry land, common dry land training 54.6 percent specific training, that means jump training or some parts of power training in the direction of pulling, stretching and stabilization. In the year in the season 2002 to 2003, she swam 50, 25.78, 156.29 and 201.27, and now you can see the next seasons and you can see the next results. I think this information we will get on a disc when the clinic is over.

So it’s not necessary to explain it the next time but I want to show you… that you know what I mean. The next year 2003 – 2004, she swam 25.48 and 155.05 and 201, 59.25. After that she made one year… and I think some problems… she was disappointed about the results and she was always unstable in the part of her mind and after one year we started again and I this year it was quite successful, 53, 40, 24.72, 100 World Record, 53.30 and 200, normally better but it’s a result from individual race. In relay, she was 1.57 something. It was a beginning, it was a new level, it was a new… better results and it helped to have [Indiscernible] [00:09:38]. By the way, my English is not so good, I told you and when I need friends, then I have on the… from your side, on the right side a friend of mine who is well known [Indiscernible] [00:09:57] and I need him, when I need him, he’s a friend of mine, he’s a real friend of mine, so he can help me to translate something.

And the next season was not so good, World Championships 53.57 but the next season was good. Olympic Games double gold, 50 and 100, it was tight but the first one is the first. Then next season it was at the World Championships in Rome 2009 and she once again 50 with World Record and 100 with World Record and on this position I’d like to explain some background about how we made it. The main target or the main competition is 100 free and to have success 100 free, I think the 200 free have to be a really good level. In the main competition, I mean, World Championships or Olympics, she doesn’t swim 200 individual. Also we cancelled relay but for us, it’s very important for the 100 to have a good level 200 hundred free. That is my philosophy, that is what I think and this 2 or 1 in the last year is not real, I think normally when she swims, then she swims 157 or 158 as a background for the 100 and the next thing about this… that’s an overview, what we did in comparison to the season before.

Sometimes, oh no, and the season 2002 – 2003, we made 25 percent dry land training, and for instance, for example, 2 – 5, 2 – 6, around 21 percent and after that we made 25, 40 and around 40 percent dry land training as a basic of ability to strength, to have power and some things we changed also and apparently for instance, training in area lactate 4 to 6 and the season 2002 – 2003 we made 5.7 percent and 7.8 – 8.3 percent and the last year 10 percent. So always to try to have a new loading, you have to get a new adaptation to avoid some [German] [00:13:54], I think you know what I mean. To have a new adaptation and for instance also, sprint in the year ‘05 – ‘06 we made 1.7 percent and the last season 6 percent. That’s what we changed to try to get always in the new season a new adaptation. Is it okay? Good.

And now I try to show you the results and compare to her opponents and also the development of some parts of the 100 free. For instance, the time 25 or time 50 blockade, it means reaction [Indiscernible] [00:15:01], the time 5 meters, the time 50 meters and velocity about several points and in this case we have enough information where we can find new resource, it means, should we train to have a better start? Should we train more power in the legs to have a better start or should we train the speed or should we t rain the second 50 or should we train the turns that… what we can find this is the information made by a German scientist, he works very good with me… together. And during the Olympics in Peking, he was always a helper after the first event, he gave me information. Britta was good, it was bad… it was not good enough, after he, after semi final, the same procedure and before they started the final, we had enough information where we have reserved or what is good. That’s what we do the whole time also during the World Championships I get always information directly after the race and I can [Indiscernible] [00:16:41] but a little bit only, not a lot of talking, just the main points. Britta start good during freestyle or first 50 good, Britta second 50 good or something. What is actual to know… to tell her. So we have this information about 50 and we have this information also from her opponents [Indiscernible] [00:17:13], sorry, next time we will have information about American swimmers, no problem. 100, by the way, Trecketts will swim again, that’s good, and 200 we have also 200 or information about Britta and all information about the opponents. And now as I show you the development 100 free, Britta and Elizabeth, you see this time, she was not good enough and step by step, she came to the same level like Libby and on this point she was better. So that’s [Indiscernible] [00:18:18].

Now concrete results, it was a World Record at 53, made in final, 25 meters 11.12, blocked side, it means reaction, flight time 0.47, 8.5 meters she came up and 5 meters 1.56 and velocity or speed between 5 and 50 meters 2.06 meter per second and you see the speed or the velocity and the frequency is not so bad, it’s not falling down, it’s nearly a good level, not go down the last meters and now compare to the race all summer in final in Rome, you see the time, start time was a little bit worse than Terese, 50 meters too but finish better than Terese and you see the same, Britta who tolled her velocity or her speed and Terese was a little bit going down the last meters. That’s why she has won. 100 free, the same information you’ll see on this overview, the velocity is relative good, that means, not going, the velocity and also frequency. Frequency 56 and on the end 52. The way of one cycle from 210 to 2 meters, that’s not so bad, it means no tiredness or less tiredness and the finish, the last 5 meters 2.61, that’s compared to another one, always quite good. That’s, in compare to the World Record before she swam in the final, you know, 52.07 and that was a World Record before 26t h of July, and you see start time better 5 meters, 50 meters better and finish also better, finish better than nearly one and half, tenth, and here you can see velocity, last meter better but nearly the same, turns a little bit less than before.

And now, some… no, no, no, let me try to make it another way.

To have help, to have training this high efficiency, we use in our Olympic Center a lot of lactate, blood, extraction with lactate and for… as a sample, what I planned last year is… last year was bad, she was always sick and injury and sick and sick again, but don’t worry, next Monday she will start again but just information. Very important for you is Sunday, I would like to show you that I work Sunday too. Not only in the week, Sunday, a coach has to work also Sunday. No, just a little fun. So, we train in Olympic Center in Berlin, it’s renovated, it was under… renovated swimming pool, 50 meters, good facilities, a good gm, we have a flume, we have Jacuzzi, we have video system underwater and above, we have lot of helpers in Olympic Center for instance, special coach for jump training or special coach for dry land training, we have special… or helper maybe for stabilization, I mean very important and I’ll show you just standard test, what we do all the time. Just the main standard test, 4 x 800, 8 x 400, 16 x 200, 31 or 36 [Indiscernible] [00:25:02] times one hundred, all of these aerobic training. I’ll show you later the concrete results.

And then we do some sets of, also standard test 4 x 50 and we do that maybe, an aerobic training and we do four times 25 meters, a [German] [00:25:34], it means sprint speed and you see it was 29th of October, we did 16 x 200 and the 17th of November, that means around 3-weeks later, we do it again and the 3rd of December, we do it again. It’s boring, typical German. And after a little break, Christmastime, the 5th of January, we did it again and a little break, yeah, the 5th of January again, February, sorry, and March, end of March, again. 29th of April again and in this file I can show you also, we do it always it was the main test. It means with the standard test, 4 x 800, 400, 200, 100 for aerobic part and we do this for the anaerobic part 4 x 50 or for sprint, 4 x 25 meters and we have some other sets, not so important but maybe important 10 x 200, kick, we do it also always after each part of… after some weeks we do it again and we do also 4 x 800 plus, 100, that means 4 x 800 was our aerobic training about lactate 4 to 6 and 100 was lactate, sorry 4 x 800 was the lactate level, 2 to 4 plus 100 was the lactate level 4 to 6, and the same 8 x 400 plus 50, 8 x 400 lower level of aerobic training and 50 little bit faster and we do on the on step test 400, 200, 100 and at the season we did it more but in this over view, I won’t have information for you when we did it before because we go sometimes through special hypnotics from the Federation, we go to [Indiscernible] [00:28:45], over there’s a center where we go three times a week to check out the whole shape, I mean power, I mean technique, I mean in a year, three times a year, we go to [Indiscernible] [00:29:05] to have special information, maybe the Norwegians they know [Indiscernible] [00:29:13] diagnostic in Germany and Hamburg, they do it the same way. So, that’s it. It’s a sample of only what we do every year, so we have [Indiscernible] [00:29:28] information, I’ll tell you later what we do, the results and this kind of planning is for me, very important to have information to know what we have for situation, what we have for shape, what we have for level and on this part I would like to try to tell you what I think about training… in my opinion or what I think is pleasing.

[audience member]: What did she do for fitness the year she did swim?

[NW]: You mean on the break?

[audience member]: Yeah, when she had the one year.

[NW]: The one year… very low amount of fitness. A little bit [30:34] training, a little bit running… almost nothing. But she didn’t get fat or always a little a bit. So what I tried to tell you also the strategy or my thinking about training. I think the main problem is to have efficient loading to train there should be a high efficiency. The training has to be efficient… sorry, sorry, and efficient. What I tried to have efficiency and the training has to be efficient and if I follow this I have to know, I have to know what they do. I have to know what the level from each athlete is right now. I have to know what they do in each training set and I try to avoid kilometers because there is no chance for adaptation.

So it’s my philosophy to teach them to please try to be efficient, right? And if I follow this way I have to have a good connection to the athletes or in this case good connection to Britta. I trust her and she trusts me and so we have a relationship in the direction of efficient training and in this case from Britta. We have a rule, if she is tired; really tired she has a right to tell me, “Norbert or coach, I am tired.” My reaction is I trust her. I tell her, “Britta, go out or do another thing or go to the Jacuzzi or something like that.” I don’t push her. You have to do the training. Please finish it. No, I won’t do it. And in this case was Britta I’d do it. Another case is when I know some other athletes and I know they are not so motivated or other things, maybe sometimes I tell them, “Please swim and finish the program.” But in this case of Britta the relationship is so tired I didn’t know. And I know when she goes out, the next session she will be again in a good motivation to give her best. That’s what I need and I try to have athletes they know. I try to have intelligent athletes who are able to work together with me and I’m not, “I am the boss.” Sure but I am not the boss without connection, without working together with my athletes. That’s what I think. I trust them and they trust me and I think this way is not so bad.

Other ways are also successful but what I tried to tell you in this special case, relationship of coach and athlete, between Britta and me. So I showed you the standard test and when we have these sessions… this standard test before I showed you results, I showed you some samples of training in the week. For instance, Tuesday we do 16 times to 100 free every three minutes without the time where they go to the blood extraction. But every three minutes they have to swim, start again. Ten times with intensity or resulting lactates two to four and after it blood extraction. The tenth I get information about lactate. After three again there is level between maybe four to five lactates, blood extraction, lactate and the last three maybe they try to swim between five and six lactate. So I have information. I have information on this sample, 16 times to 100. I have the time because they swim steady always.

After time that’s information. I have the lactate. I have pulse. I have three information after ten. I have three information after the thirteenth time… lactate, pulse and I have three information after the last three. Again time, lactate, pulse rate. As a sample and I tried to explain it so clearly because in the next file I’ll show you the results and we do it the same with 36 times 100 free, divide in 12-12-12. We have the same information or eight times through 100, tick. I have the same information or four times in 800 every 11 minutes result… the break is longer when they take blood. And the four times a 100 I try to explain again. Three times this lactate four to six so I have information. One time lactate four to six. That’s the target. I mean they try to swim to have such numbers of lactate. And eight times 402, every 5.30 days swim again. And I have again information six times lactate two to four versus a level of and two times between four and six. And when we have these results the next day, we get the information from the Olympic centre from the girls they have taken blood. Or when we are in the camp then we use lactates, scout or something so we have the said information directly after some seconds… we have the information.

So that’s what I tried to show you about aerobic training in special set or standard tests. And one thing about sprint training, Monday on this date… Monday the 27th of April we made power training. I’ll show you later and after that we go to the flum and swim eight times, ten seconds, butterfly kick to improve the kick after turn and start. And eight times the whole stroke. There’s a high velocity… I mean two meters, 2.1 meters 10 seconds every three minutes. And after that we end of flums, some exercise for stabilization to develop opponents of the main muscles. To avoid the problems with the shoulder or something like that. And we do it Monday or we did it Monday and we did it Wednesday. And the next explanation about this training, the standard training is… should be better I changed it for a while and now to the results. That file was information about Breda. If you make a photo, it will cost $100. You can get everything about… please, just a joke. So for instance, in the season two of ‘08-09 April 28 she did four times 800 [Indiscernible] [00:41:01] the first 932.0, the second 926.0 it was pulse rate 10 seconds 25 and lactate 2.8. So that’s the first information we have for this special set for this… the first time, lactate and pulse.

We get the second after the third. She’s won 9.29.9, it was the same lactate, and it was the same pulse rate. The time is closed so the pulse rate is the same and lactate is also the same. The last she’s won 9.13.5 pulse rate 29 and lactate 49. So we have information, information, and information and now because there’s a lot of experience I am able to calculate the level. The level for lactate 426 for this day is… once she swims 910 to 916 there’s a pulse rate 25 to 26, she is on the right intensity for GR2. That’s the situation right now and there are some suggestions for the next set. When the next set comes she knows, “When I swim 910 to 916 I am on the right intensity or for GR1 it means lactate two to four she has a level on this day, she has to swim 917 to 930. The pulse rate has to be 22 to 24. And this information is the level on the 28 of April 29. January, she starts from a break. It was a bad level. Only 10 minutes to 1006. You see development from January… maybe at least five months later the levels are better than that time.

And we can see also the relationship between now… the situation now and the situation in 2002. I have information [Indiscernible] [00:44:09] from 2002. You have the information. Over 2003, over 2004, 2005 and I can also compare the level in these months 2009… I mean we take May 2009. She has a level of 910 to 916 [Indiscernible] [00:45:03] it’s not so good. I can’t compare, for instance to2004. So I know exactly the relationship between such result and later on the results for… and 103… what we need to have for aerobic level when we want to be successful. [Indiscernible] [00:45:33] I tried to explain. We do it. It’s a 400… it was a 400 so the same procedure, the best in the season 2009, it was the end of May. It was level calculated… lactate four to six between 428 to 432, pulse 26 and aerobic level for lactate two to four between 433 to 439, it’s pulse 23 to 25. So and this set the same. I can show how it was last year, how it was in the months before. That’s always the way to try the efficiency. She has to know what the times are best for her and so you can expect adaptation. You do it with 400. You do it with 200.

Always information for her and for me and at least for us what is the concrete level. We do it for 100. We do it for kicks and we do it for four times, four times, 4×53 every 90 seconds and every 20 minutes. That mean if you swim 53… no, first I have to explain some additional things about aerobic training. If you have information about the special test or the standard test, you can also have information about the pulse rate for other sets without standard and without lactate. For instance, when you swim another set, not 4 x 800 or eight times 400 or 200 or 100, you swim mixed aerobic, aerobic mix and she knows when I swim and after one set or one serial I take my pulse rate. Then she has 23 to 24 pulse rate, she’s right. She’s under the right intensity to swim in the level between 204. Or we have a set… mixed set which is partly [Indiscernible] [00:48:36] it means lactate 426. When she takes her pulse rate and she has 25, 26, then she know, “Okay, I am right. I am in the right intensity.” That’s what I mean with efficiency. That was the… yeah, please.

[audience member]: In the starting times on the 400 and 800s [Indiscernible] [00:49:01]

Norbert Warnatzsch: Yeah, that’s concrete. The 4×800 we start every 11 minutes, yeah. But when it takes longer because the whole group has to go to lactate, maybe we change it to 12 minutes. And 400 I do 530 every 530 without blood extraction. Maybe it takes longer so six minutes. 200, three minute, every three minute and 100 every 130, yeah. So and now to another part of training, sprint training. We do it in the flume, sure and the time of loading is always ten seconds or about ten seconds to avoid accumulation of lactate. The break is about three minutes. So the target is to have the highest velocity, the highest speed, highest motivated training for sprints. And then we do 4×25 meters free. Every 90 seconds we start 25 meters. When the set is over we start again with the next set when we arrive 20 minutes. That means about 13 minutes break. And we try to develop the six sets from the block. We start this commando. We try to develop also the ability to start. Reach and start and three where she comes up and for [Indiscernible] [00:51:16] something like that.

I’ll show you before we went to Rome. The last set, times are approximately 11.89, pulse rate 26, lactating 5 and 47 and the third and the fifth minute. The next 1179, 1178, 5954 and the last a little bit less 1196, pulse rate 26 and lactate always in a good relationship to the results… not too high and that’s what we have as a standard too. For instance we start the set 2007 and we did at eight and we did it nine and we do it next time too. And then the next set is also standard test… 4×53 versus every 90 seconds, third and every 20 minutes. After the set is over we start the next set with about 13 or 14 minutes. And the target is the same. Start… reaction start for transit, body position, frequency… I told you body position and also touch the wall. That’s what we tried to train to develop such sets and for instance one set before Olympics, maybe yeah. We did it in the 26th of June and the times are 2936, 28.89 plus lactate 4953, 28.66, 28.96, 6965. In this case I’m a little bit unhappy with these results but 12th of March I’ll show you a set where I think that’s a right loading because the lactate is high enough to have also adaptation for anaerobic. She swims 28.06, pulse rate 28, 27.45, 298298, that’s what we want about ten. 27.31, 27.45, 10, 11 that’s a good level in this case of training to get the adaptation for anaerobic abilities. And that’s what I want to explain about the water training. And now some saying about [Indiscernible] [00:54:59]. We tried to work on [Indiscernible] [00:55:11]… yeah, please?

[audience member]: The total amount of hours during the whole year, you said something about that… how many hours do you use?

[NW]: In a year?

[audience member]: In the year. [Inaudible] [00:55:27]

[NW]: Dryland… the last year it was a small amount because she trained for just only 35 weeks. She was starting to develop her studies and for me very important. And this 35 weeks we trained 218 hours dryland. And the Olympic year we trained 50 weeks. We did 347 hours dryland that means 40% in relationship to the whole amount of training. Yeah, it’s okay? So now I’ll show you some dryland or the philosophy or what you think we have to do…. Very important for us is to have stabilized body. I mean to avoid this balance, very important to have the whole body in a good shape. I mean the muscles in front, the muscles on the back. The muscles in front, the muscles on the back, so we tried to do a lot of stabilizing, very important for us because in the water she has to be stable in her… yeah. And we do some other things. There is body rate. For instance we… Monday we do 20 minutes chin up, 20 minutes…. Why you stood, sir? Why you stood sir? Push… what is this? Dips… sorry, 20 minutes dips and 20 minutes push off. Yeah? Yeah, push up sorry. And this we do 20 minutes. They have to do a set and if she is tired, finish. A break and after that she starts again, starts again, starts again. That is what we do with the body weight and then we have a special circle. I’ll show you. We have a special circuit, yes and then we do also aero or (treadmill). Treadmill. Yes, thanks.

So that’s what we do and then we do stabilizing patchy ball or special exercise for the back and front part. And one thing about dryland training… we did last year. One sample and this time she was overweight. She was with overweight, 60.68. It’s difficult for me as coach when she has overweight; it’s not so bad because she looks like a model or something like that. But as a coach, overweight is not so good. So as a man 66 kilo is good, you know. As a coach it’s not good. So we have a special program for power of train training. It was 23 stations and we do it every three minutes and I made some tests. Also this lactate and you see when we have six or seven or six is a little bit high. I told her she has to train this around 3,4,5 that’s okay. And for instance one thing.

[audience member]: [Inaudible] [01:00:25] somewhere in the circuit like a certain time?

[NW]: Yeah, after each station.

[audience member]: Every station?

[NW]: Yeah, yeah. So for instance butterfly; you know, this exercise… she did it 8 times—that’s special information. Additional loading at 6 kilos and the pulse rate was 108 and the lactate 5. So that’s what we tried to have and pull-up training and the [Indiscernible] [01:00:11] of endurance. It means in some books they call it high intensity training heat. So we tried to do something like that and this we test always after a short time again. So you can see development about how many kilos they did. And about power of [Indiscernible] [01:00:46] Britta she is a good athlete in comparison to other girls. She is able to do chin-up eight times with additional weight of ten kilos. That’s not so bad. Her shape in athletic and power is quite good. So it is 9.8. I suggest I stop it and I suggest if you want… maybe you have some questions. So I would like to give an answer or I hope my English was not so bad that you could understand the main part.

[audience member]: [Inaudible] [01:02:42].

[NW]: Some questions or some… yeah?

[audience member]: How close to [Inaudible 1:02:48]

[NW]: That is sets. Yeah, yeah. It’s difficult. For the main competition it means World Championships or Olympics, I stopped at three weeks before or sometimes four weeks before. And this year in preparation of the German Championships, I stopped at two weeks before. That’s not so good but I know four weeks after the German Championships or the World Championships so four weeks for preparation for the main competition after the qualification is difficult. So I told Britta we swim the German Championships not with right tapering. We do it to keep her abilities for tapering and direction of the World Championships.

[audience member]: Alright the year [Inaudible] [01:04:01] how long did it take her to get back to a certain level and do you feel that maybe it was a good thing for her to take a year off for that?

[NW]: The first answer for the second question is it was really good. She was… in the training she was always better than Francisca. Now, Francisca she was always afraid and the competition nothing and we need the help of [Indiscernible] [01:04:40] that’s what I mean. And she was very, very good. She is very good. She is able to work [Indiscernible] [01:04:48] very successful. She was also in backing. And the next step for us Rome result. So Britta’s ability to have everything under control has developed now over the years. And this year as she had the break, she starts work with her together. I told Britta, “Britta, come on go to [Indiscernible] [01:05:18] is the name of scientologist, sort of. She was also a helper to Franziska before. So she was a helper to Franziska and after that for Britta. She is very skillful; she is a good one… thank God. Okay?

[audience member]: You know, weekly [Indiscernible] [01:05:47]. How many times in that [Indiscernible] [01:05:51] did you go over to fix or [Inaudible] [01:05:53].

Norbert Warnatzsch: Not so often, not so often. Especially… and I call it aerobic sets. Especially in the sets of 4 x 800 or I told you the standard test. I don’t like to have more lactate than six. If they have to train this higher amount of lactate they can do it for a short time. I mean set high lactate, remove the next set, remove and I don’t like it to have too long, too high amount of lactate in the muscles. I think it’s not good.

[audience member]: What do you do or how do you protect her shoulders?

[NW]: We do [Indiscernible] [01:06:56] a lot of that before we start this training. There is water training or there is dryland training. We do [Indiscernible] [01:07:04] and we have also in Olympic center, Zila… strips. From the roof it comes up, you know. (Ropes)

Ropes and they work and physiotherapy sure, for the shoulder and we do a lot of stretching and we do a lot of training the opponents. I mean when you’re trying to beat [Indiscernible] [01:07:51] you have to train three tips and then the shoulder muscle is the same. When you do a lot of this, you have to do a lot of this. I mean always to avoid this balance.

[audience member]: When you say you did 20 minutes of pull-ups and 20 minutes of push-ups, what was the set [Inaudible] [01:08:18].

[NW]: When they get tired they stop and after it they feel, “I can do it again.”

[audience member]: So they create their own sets?

[NW]: Yeah, yeah. They create their own sets. That’s also a question of trust. They do it, I know.

[audience member]: How do you fit in the work in the flume and what is it exactly where you get the most benefit from working in flume?

[NW]: Working in a flume is… you have a situation where there is no chance to get out. You have to swim and she can stop, sure. But I think… sorry short time I’ll tell him in German and he can translate. By the way, when I need him he is a good friend of mine. [Foreign Language] [01:09:56].

[friend translates]: He said the thing is that when in a flume you have a condition. You can put a speed at whatever speed you want and then you create a condition that a swimmer has to adapt to. And in adapting you… the swimmer gets the exercise and so you can say, “You do ten seconds in a flume or eight seconds or 12 seconds at a certain pace.” If you take a pace that is normally good for endurance, it’s a low pace; he can swim minutes in it but that you can do in normal as well. But then you go to the maximum so up to the speed, up to your top speed or beyond. So faster the speed then of course you can say you go as long as you can at this speed or you go for ten seconds and have a rest and another ten seconds and a rest, etc. Clear?

[NW]: So you know, he’s a friend of mine. He knows what I think. [Foreign Language] [01:11:50].

[audience member]: I want to know if you use in more as technical or as you say to force them into frequency is where he cannot swim in the pool or is it when I’ve been training there once in a month where we don’t ever [Indiscernible] [01:12:16] or is it because what I like so much is you need to move the hand faster than in the pool because [Indiscernible] [01:12:32]. What is it you like most?

[NW]: All together. The last you said, sure clear. But I think all things together that are the way to success for sprint. Britta for instance in Berlin flume and it’s different to other flumes and [Indiscernible] [01:12:56] she is able to swim and in the best shape able to swim 2.2 meters per second when she is in good shape. But it’s the Berlin flume. In Berlin everything is better.

[audience member]: Can I do another question? I think I’ve got the information right. [Indiscernible] [01:13:22] is the one who has reached the highest speed in the flume as a swimmer. He thought he was faster than the others swimming not only [Indiscernible] [01:13:32] from women. Is Britta in the fastest one in the flume?

[NW]: I’m not sure. The fastest one in the world in the flume I’m not sure but the fastest one in the world is second 50.

[audience member]: Does that tend to fix slipping? You know, slipping where you drop your elbow and you’re in slip where you have to create something to avoid that.

[NW]: The slip at the elbow I think.

[audience member]: In the flume.

[NW]: In the flume, I know. I think high elbow position in the stands of 200 and 400 and 800 and longer is very important. But I think 50 and 100 high elbow, I think most of them swim like, come in and nothing else. They don’t have time to build the high elbow position. The 200 is starting to have…

[audience member]: [Indiscernible] [01:14:45] so it is flume that you have to find a way to avoid that doing [Inaudible] [01:14:53].

[NW]: So some more? Please.

[audience member]: How about the energy cost in the same velocity at swimming pool in that [Indiscernible] [01:15:11]. You have this idea? You have compared with the lap kicks for example in the same velocity, same place in the same room?

[NW]: No, I don’t have information about lactate and flume in compared to the set I told you. But I am sure we do every sprint, at least after three minutes break and we start again. And I am relatively sure they don’t have a lot of lactates I think when they have three or four, I’m sure because the times are eight to ten seconds so the faces of [Indiscernible] [01:15:58], energy.

[audience member]: You have a lot of information for all your athletes. Do you ever get…?

[NW]: Sorry, it’s not allowed. It’s too much.

[audience member]: At what point or do you ever get stuck on the numbers that you just need to put it eye [Indiscernible then in Foreign Language] [1:16:36]

[NW]: I try to be exact there. All information for Britta I showed you. I have for [Indiscernible] [01:16:54]. For each athlete I have the same information that is the standard test. And that’s what I do and that’s what I think is right. But with 40 years I have an eye. I see. So that’s it? So no more questions. One more, sorry, one more.

[audience member]: Can you give us an idea of how you [Indiscernible] [01:17:32]?

[NW]: The first is always insurance training the lower level and the violent training. The first dryland is without special exercises, aerobic training, running, treadmill and exercise for the whole body, I mean backs, stomach and chin-up and something like that and then step by step more water training, lower level of aerobic training and then over the next weeks and more intensity, more [Indiscernible] [01:18:23] that means four to six and then sprints and then anaerobic parts and then tapering. That’s what I think. Yeah, that’s it? So thanks a lot for the questions and thanks a lot for your attention.

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