Sets that Stress the Aerobic System by Eddie Reese (2009)


Published


INTRODUCTION: My name is Bill Rose and it gives me great pleasure to introduce one of my heroes. Eddie Reese has been at the University of Texas since 1978. He has had 9 NCAA Championship Teams. He has been the ASCA Coach of the Year twice. He has been the Olympic Coach for the United States multiple times. Just this year, on the World Championship Team, he had Aaron Peirsol, Eric Shanteau, Ricky Berens, and David Walters. Every time we have a championship team — Olympics, World Championships or whatever — you can be sure Eddie will have multiple swimmers on that team. Eddie Reese taught me one thing a few years ago that I will never forget, and I run every workout based upon the two words that he talked about and I hope he will talk more about them now because it means so much to everyone and it is simply “more better.” I give to you, Coach Eddie Reese.

COACH REESE: When I talk about career training, I am not talking about you or me. I am talking about the swimmers. I’m assuming most of you coach age groupers and that is a very, very important aspect of a swimmer’s success in their career, so that is my reason for the talk. I have very strong feelings about what I see in athletes as they come into college. There is a physical equation for success and the biggest component is aerobic training. You have a place in that, particularly if you are an age-group coach, because you can make more improvements and better changes to the aerobic system – the internal drive of the body – when the swimmers are at a younger age than when they’re 18 and over.

The three things that we worry about training are the anaerobic system (going fast), the aerobic system (going easy, and “easy” is relative), and the nervous system.

With the aerobic system, it depends where you start. At 10 and under, they can get aerobic benefits just by moving back and forth in the pool. But by college…I once had a college swimmer go 8 X 400-yard freestyle on 4:30. I asked him to hold 4:00 to 4:05, which he did. He had a 90 heart rate. I did him no good. He wasted his time. I just wanted to see what that would do. He was such an aerobic animal that the set was valueless for him.

It’s hard to separate those three systems. I’m going to try to zero in on aerobic today and leave the other systems out, even though I know you can’t do that. You don’t ever do that. You can’t do it in a workout. Even if you swim 3,000 for time, you’re still training some part of each component. But today I am just going to talk about the aerobic side.

Anything and everything you do will make them a better swimmer. It doesn’t matter if it’s push-ups off the knees or swim for 10 minutes or kick for 10 minutes. With age-group swimmers, their aerobic system is in a place that anything is going to help it and I am not too worried about that group. I am a little worried about them technically, but not aerobically.

There are many reasons why swimmers can be successful early in their career. Have you ever had a 10-and-under gymnast come into your swimming program? They take off because they have strength. My program may have nothing to do with their initial success but, going forward, aerobics is absolutely necessary for them.

So how do you design aerobic sets for young swimmers? For aerobic sets I definitely prefer freestyle and freestyle kick because of the rate at which you can move. You put the greatest stress on the circulatory system with the faster movements. In butterfly and breaststroke you’re moving more toward the muscular system, so all my breaststrokers are freestyle kickers for at least 8 weeks at the start of the season. They hate it so I know it’s good for them. Isn’t that how we determine things?

What I like for an aerobic set is something like this:
(100 free /50 kick) X 6 to 8 rounds

The interval for the 100s freestyle can be anything — 1:30…1:40…1:50…2 minutes – you have got to decide that. For aerobic improvement at a young age you do not want any less than 15 seconds rest – or any more than 20 because you want improvement in the aerobic base. Obviously, the 50 kick is on a different interval and I will get to that in a minute.

Heart rate is real important. My brother and I went into the head of our Kinesiology Department one day and asked: How do we improve the aerobic ability of someone who is in college and they have already worked hard and been through it? This a guy who was in charge of most of Lance Armstrong’s training and all of his testing during his success in the Tour and he said – and this really scared me – he said, to improve aerobic ability in someone 20 years old you must improve or increase stroke volume. That scared me right there so I said, how do we do that? He said, you must have them swim at a 160 to 180 heart rate with 10 to 15 seconds rest and do it again and you have got to repeat it. He said, some people on your team can do it 10 times and get better. Some people may have to go to 200s with 10 or 15 seconds rest and do that 8 or 10 times. Check their heart rate. Everyone has different needs, whether you are a beginner or pro. And even at the pro level there are differences. Eric Shanteau and Aaron Peirsol have different aerobic needs than Dave Walters. Dave has become a 50 man, much to my chagrin, but as he said last year – when I go real fast in the 50 this year people will look at a new way to do it. He is a 4:14 500-yard freestyler and he went 19.1 or 2 in the 50 and, as my team will tell you, I do not know how to coach sprinters. I get them to go fast, but I do not coach them the logical way.

I like to throw kicking into my aerobic sets. Follow each 100 freestyle with a 50 kick. Make the interval so they get 15 seconds before they start the next round and as they get better, you know to increase the number of rounds. I like to start gently and build up gradually. I had a friend who coached at a college where in the first week they were at 7,000 in practice and in two weeks they were fatigued. To me, fatigued means not recovering on a day-to-day basis. So they went up to high yardage real quick and stopped. In our program, after four weeks we are still going up because we started with 4-5,000, 2,000 of which is stroke work. We do 20 minutes kicking – 40 minutes aerobic whatever, but we work up gradually. We build into it. I think that is all this sport is, isn’t it? My opinion is that if you start gently and build gradually, they are going to reach a higher level before they fatigue and fatigue is very, very important. That is where the body makes changes. What the workload tells the body is – you are not fit enough to handle this. You have got to make some adjustments.

Another aerobic set that I like for young kids is:
(100 free on 1:30/100 IM swimming free instead of fly on 1:40) X 5 to 8 rounds.

Early in the season I do not see any need to do butterfly. Most 10 and unders are not strong enough to do the stroke right anyway. I can remember listening to someone talk years ago about 10 and unders and 8 and unders – the ones that are not very strong – and how they did just kicking most of the time with them. As they get stronger at kicking, we can put in the stroke drills. The number of rounds that you do depends on how good the swimmer is.

Here’s another set that I love, particularly for age groupers:
5 minutes swim/4 min. kick/3 min. swim/2 min. kick/1 min. swim

We have 9-year olds in our camp and I see them 2 hours a day. I see everybody and I love a 5-minute swim followed by a 4-minute kick. That’s aerobic for younger kids. It’s something very, very simple and then you can measure the distance they go, keep a record of it, and they can get better. It is so hard in the competitive world that we live in – US of A and the competitive world of swimming – not to have swimmers feel bad when other people beat them. That is going to happen. It always happens, so I try to give them an anchor, which swimming does better than any other sport. You can be 30th in an event but if you swam 5 seconds faster than your best time, it’s like you won the event. The coach is happy, the swimmer is happy — and with sets like this, you can do the same thing in practice.

I have the biggest problem with my swimmers when they come into the weight room. I had a breaststroker come in last year and he could bench-press 3 X 115 pounds and as I told him – so could his 8-year-old sister. I didn’t tell him that, but it was a good thought, you know. Brendan Hansen would do 6 X 240, but this guy doesn’t have to bench-press like Brendan Hansen. All he has to do is make himself better – just get better. Do what it takes to get better. That is my motto every year. We never aim to win. We do not worry about that – just keep getting better. What happens if a swimmer gets significantly better every year? It doesn’t matter where they start. Pretty soon they are beating good people and I do believe it is a simple process.

I was at the Open for five days and at Juniors for three days. We have more talent in this country than I have ever seen in my life and I have been doing this for over 10 years – whoa – that is not a laugh. We have great talent out there. We need to prepare it and it is hard to do when somebody breaks out and starts going fast. We want to do race-pace stuff and race-pace stuff plays a part in every season every year, but I do not believe it is a major part, particularly for younger swimmers.

Here’s another aerobic format that I like for younger swimmers:
8, 12 or 15 X 100 free on whatever interval gives 15-20 seconds rest

You can do the same thing for IM, with or without butterfly. And you can do the same thing for 100s of stroke.

Breath control can also be an aid in working the aerobic system. We have already started controlling the last 25 of our races in breath control. I had a young man win the 100 freestyle at NCAAs one year and you need to know – he couldn’t do that. He took 5 fly kicks off every wall, 3 strokes before he took a breath, 1 or 2 stroke cycles without a breath, 2 strokes, then he was into the wall. So he is breathing 3 times a 25.

Deep down most of us know that if we don’t breathe on freestyle we will go faster. If you time your swimmers on a 25, rarely will somebody go their best time breathing every stroke. Granted, there are exceptions, but Garrett Weber-Gale – 100 yard freestyle – that same season Garrett was doing 300 push-ups a day along with everything else we did. You talk about diminishing returns – that was it. Was it worth a tenth and a half? To him it was.

There are things we can train for and breath control is one of them. There is a guy who swam for Cal named Bart Kizierowski. Bart’s last 25 of every hundred freestyle – one breath. A long time ago for the old timers in the room there was a guy named Allen Poucher – swam out of Jacksonville – went to the University of Southern California. Alan’s 200 fly – meters or yards – one breath in the last 25. So we train for that last 25 every day.

To work breath control in an aerobic way, we do a lot of breathing every 3. I do it to balance the stroke. I do it to cause the heart rate to go up without them having to go faster on a faster interval. Another way is to take 3 strokes off every wall without a breath or 5 fly kicks and 3 strokes without a breath. Please have your swimmers doing fly kicks off the wall on everything but breaststroke. So we are working on that last 25 every day. The last 25 can be on a 50 or a 200 in practice and that is their breathing pattern. They have nothing else to do but get that right and pick it up a little bit.

Something forever and for all. That is a pretty big statement but it describes a very versatile aerobic set. We had some clinics in Austin years ago and some guy came in who coached high school and, you know, all the big-name coaches were speaking and this guy should have been speaking. I can’t remember his name but he is from some northern state. But he had an aerobic set that he works his swimmers up to doing for 60 minutes. He had two swimmers doing 55 X 100 on 1:05, but he worked it up gradually. We have started at 30 minutes but for the younger age groups they might go for 20 minutes – maybe they go 10 X 100 on 2 minutes. As they start making the interval by more than 20 seconds – let’s say they are starting to go 1:35s – you move the interval to 1:50 and let them see how many they can go. This is purely individual – them against them and you can do it in 20 or 30 minutes. You never have to go longer than 20 minutes. There are college swimmers who can go 62 X 100 on 58 – you know – that kind of stuff. Well – let them do it – that is good. To think that you can do something and do it is vastly different. For a lot of people – believing or hearing all the time that they can do it is sometimes good enough and they never have to do it and we don’t tell them to stop there.

Once again – the best time to make aerobic gains is with the 12-15 year olds – maybe 16. Girls mature earlier than boys, so with girls the range maybe goes down to 11. And during this period, in my opinion, everybody in that age group is a 400 IMer or 1500 swimmer and maybe a 1650 swimmer or 800 swimmer long course. And it would help them to train that way. We don’t know who are the fast people then because we are not doing muscle biopsies. We are not sticking a needle a half inch deep in a muscle and cutting out a piece to find out what percentage white fiber and red fiber they are and we do not know what the percentages mean anyway. I wish we knew who is going to be a sprinter and who is not. Then we would have a different plan. We don’t know that.

I am talking about aerobic today, but I had to put technique in here. Technique all the time and I have been doing it for years and I have seen the same mistakes for years. Last week we were 20 minutes freestyle – 10 minutes backstroke – all drills. And if you do not do the drills right, don’t do the drills. This week we are 20 minutes backstroke – 10 minutes breaststroke. Drills are all about awareness and if you can’t video them and show them what they’re doing, then you need to keep after them. I have found that having other swimmers do the coaching can be effective. I had the worst freestyler on earth one time and after about 8 weeks I was ready to get out of the sport because I couldn’t fix his stroke. It dawned on me one day – I was going to put it on someone else and somebody –a college swimmer — fixed his stroke in four 50s. I had become an insignificant other. You know…what a parent is to a child.

As you are going through this process of building the aerobic system, the workloads need to increase. As age-group coaches, you are in a great position because swimmers have a great chance to get better because they get 3-6% stronger just by being alive. The physical maturation process at that age is that they get stronger by walking around and by eating. It’s the nature of the beast. So a lot of times we misinterpret what has made them good. In other words, was it the workout or was it the genetics and physiology. Always pretend it was the genetics and increase the workouts.

I gave a talk, years ago in Orlando, and I went through each age group and what they needed – how 10 and unders get strength, how 11 & 12s get strength and what they needed to do and so forth right on out. I also talked about aerobic training. I got an email from a guy and he was an assistant coach. He coached the good 11 & 12s and the second-line 13 and 14s. He had 86 swimmers. I don’t believe he coached them all at the same time because if he did, he’s a lot better than I was. He had them do a lot of aerobic stuff – everybody on his team would go 2,000 in under 30 minutes. Now, that doesn’t sound very good, but if it is everybody on your team, that means the 86th person on that team (probably a breaststroker who can’t do freestyle) it means they were aerobically fit.

Well, I visited that program a year ago because I was recruiting a swimmer and I kept looking around and I kept asking who is that guy… who is that guy. They had six or seven senior boys that I didn’t know, and who could work out and look good in the water and I was totally impressed because they had been treated right. He did not have anybody great in the 11s & 12s. You know, he had a bunch of 1:00 to 1:02 girl 100 backstrokers – that is yards and you know – nothing that would make Juniors or anything. And he had about eight 11 & 12-year-old boys from .53 to .58 in a 100-yard freestyle. All of that is good, but we have to prepare that group so that they can be as good as they can be when their body is ready – when their body is at its best. Of course, that is about age 28 and we hope they are out economically working somewhere.

This coach had an aerobic plan and he stuck to it. I think this is the way to go. Have an overall aerobic plan. Know what should be accomplished, aerobically, at each stage of a swimmer’s career. And then don’t be taken off track due to fast success that might be a result of physical maturation or natural strength gain or somebody blossoming, time-wise.

It won’t hurt you to hear that again. I have an athletic director who is a great track coach – a guy who coached at Kansas State. Back when he was coaching track his kids had the World Record in the 2-mile relay and the distance medley, which is one guy doing the mile, one going ¾ of a mile, one guy going half a mile and another doing quarter of a mile. Everybody came from within 200 miles of Kansas State. You don’t ever hear about that anymore, not in distance running. I asked him – how did you do that? He said, I got Doc Councilman’s book and did it that way. They ran 40 quarters every weekend. They would take their heart rate and when the heart rate got back down to a certain point they would send them on the next quarter. If it didn’t come down, they would send them home. But he also told me, “If you want somebody to know something or believe it, you don’t tell them one time. You tell them often.” So I am going to reiterate that: Don’t get off track by somebody blossoming time-wise. Stay on the program.

Here are some of the aerobic sets that we have done. I have used our intervals and you can do anything you want with these. There is a lot of variety in these. The first set is:
(200 free on 2 minutes/175 free on 2 minutes) X 6 to 10 times

A variation is:
(200 free on 2:00/150 stroke on 2:00) X 6 to 10 times.

I got that from a guy who was a genius, but he coached sprinters and did a great job. It was Sam Freas and I don’t know if he just dreamed this up and never did it, but he went 200 free on 2 minutes/150 fly on 2 minutes. I mean, you may have to be 2:30 and 2:30 or maybe 2:20 on the free and 2:30 on the 150.

One variation of this is the hardest set we have ever done:
(200 freestyle swim on 2 minutes /150 kick on 2 minutes) X 6 to 10 times

I had one guy do that. He also made the Michael Phelps kick set: 10 X 100-yard flutter kicks on a kickboard on 1:10. You must be able to kick.

There are just so many variations to do on this. My sprinters do it as 100 free on a minute/75 free on a minute….eight times through. I think they like it because they haven’t got time to talk to me during it and I really like that.

The best set I have ever given short course is:
5 X 100 on 1:10…4 X 200 on 2:10…3 X 300 on 3:10…2 X 400 on 4:10…1 X 500 on 5:10. Two minute break and then we did the same set but the intervals were on a minute.

I had a distance guy from California, a guy from New York, a guy from Florida, and a guy from Texas, and they all made it. The best performance was by Matt Hooper, who probably helped you down at the ASCA registration booth. He did this set and when he did it on a minute he went :56s on the 100s, 1:53s on the 200s, 2:51s in the 300s, 3:48 in the 400s, and 4:35 in the 500. That is a heck of a set.

For strokes we do 300s to 800s of the stroke. You could do this as 100 swim/100 drill or pull or kick, times four. It’s hard for the breaststrokers – hard on their knees — to go 800s so they might do it as 400 repeats. I know that there are people who have kicked 2,000, but I have seen enough of that that it scares me. So for breaststroke, we will do 100 swim, 100 breaststroke drill where they do 4 pulls, 2 strokes and we will do that for an 800. Or we’ll do 800, 600, 400, 200. Brendan Hansen has done 5 X 400 breaststrokes on 5 minutes – yards of course – under 4:30, but we have got to get better at that.

Fly is very difficult to keep aerobic. An aerobic fly set might look like this:
100 fly on a minute base
75 fly on the same relative base (:45)
50 fly on :30
25 fly on :15
4 X 50 freestyle on :35 and keep them under 30 to keep the heart rate up, but allow them to get ready to fly again and we start back at:
75 fly on :45
50 fly on :30
25 fly on :15
3 X 50 freestyle on :35
50 fly on :30
25 fly on :15
2 X 50 freestyle on :35
25 fly on :15
1 X 50 freestyle on :35

One of my swimmers suggested that set. I really like to do a hard set. You know what happens when you finish a hard set? Nothing. Usually they are tired so they do nothing. We will do a hard set now and the milers – let’s say they do 4 X 400 on 4 minutes, 4 X 300 on 3:00, 4 X 200 on 2:00, 4 X 100 on 1:00. Then I give them 30 seconds and we will go 10 X 50 and I want them to see the clock. In other words – do a turn and see the clock at :27. This is 1) mental toughness. 2) proof that they can still do it because they are tired. That is a 4,000 set in 40 minutes. Now, a lot of them, I mean – a lot of them can do that and it is not very difficult.

Another aerobic butterfly set that we do is:
8 to 10 X 100 on 1:20. These are 25 fly kick underwater, 50 fly, 25 free.

I am not a proponent of breathing every stroke on butterfly. There are always exceptions. If you remember – there was an NCAA champion years ago named Fred Schmidt – swam at Indiana – breathed every stroke. There is a pretty good flyer now that breathes every stroke – Michael Phelps. There are always exceptions. My guys cannot do it and go as fast as they can go, so last year we started making some changes. We swim some hundreds where they breathe twice a lap and on the turn (a regular turn; not a two-breath turn as we call it). I like them to kick underwater first, then swim a 50 and then 25 free so they are ready to fly again.

Another fly set that I really like (and of course we haven’t done many of them) is:
50 fly on :30/50 fly kick on :40

I think if they can get to where they can do this 6 or 8 times, that’s good. I think there are some of them that need to be able to do it 8 times. Obviously, a sprinter may not do it 8 times. You can change the interval relative to their ability. Usually most of the flyers can do the :30 and go .27 and be ready to kick, but I have got some kickers that might be on :45. Change the intervals to protect the ones that can’t make it.

I don’t mind giving them sets that they can’t make, but I want to give them a lot of stuff that they can do. My other favorite set is one that Jack Bauerle stole from me and now his butterflyer is pounding my butterflyer. We go 20 X 50-yard butterfly on :35 and it is amazing who makes that. I have got a guy that takes his IM out in :56 for 100 yards fly. We don’t let him do butterfly in public or wear Texas stuff when he swims butterfly – the association thing — but he made twenty 50 flies on :35. All the 400 IMers make it – all the milers – whether they can swim fly or not.

Once again, to go over this – we do mostly freestyle kick. One of the best age-group programs I have ever seen in my life…for the first 4 or 5 months of the season they would start with a 2,000 kick set for warm-up and half that time they were with shoes on. We got a breaststroker from that team who is one of our best flutter kickers. Our best flutter kickers came from that team and they could swim.

Freestyle is the best stroke for aerobic training due to the fast stroke rate. Freestyle kick is the best for capillarization – that is how you build up the blood vessels in the outer extremities. Breaststroke kick won’t go fast enough, and I don’t think fly kick does either so that is why my breaststrokers are doing flutter kick.

For aerobic training, going distance with different strokes is not bad. I remember when we were talking about 200s for 10 and unders and there were some people talking about 400s of the strokes for 11 and 12s – definitely in practice.

My plan – the way my swimmers get better — is I try to go harder every year. I change my program 10-20% a year. I never change it easier. As my seniors tell me – I feel sorry for the freshmen when they get to be seniors. Now, I don’t do this all the time because I get side-tracked. I get beat down verbally. It is real tough on the pros because they do not want to do that stuff and there are exceptions to every rule. I mean – Aaron Peirsol took till mid-December off. I have never heard of that. I was totally against it. I had absolutely no say in the matter and I knew that. Aaron, Michael, Jason Lezak, Ryan Lochte – there are not many of them out there that can do that.

Do you watch these guys double? Remember the 2004 trials when Michael had 3 events in one day and he was all over all of them the whole time? Made the Olympic team in all three and Ryan Lochte’s double from the – was it 200 back to 200 IM – he had a break of 17 to 18 minutes? Cannot be done at the Olympics. He did it and I know how he trained. I am a firm believer that swimming does not allow us to make changes in the easier direction. If it does – it is only short term.

Okay – we will take two seconds of applause and I think I have got three seconds for questions.

Q:
A: The question is about kickboards. I am definitely, as a Masters swimmer, against kickboards for Masters swimmers. I don’t like the back arch – at least for those of us over 40. This year we are going to put a snorkel on, kick without a board and with a board and see how that goes, but we work to kick hard. To kick ten 100s flutter kick on 1:20 on my team – you are in the bottom quarter. We work hard at kicking. A lot of times in our sport we will try something – if it doesn’t work, we will approach it a little differently or color it a little bit differently and I will try things. If they don’t work I get rid of them. I won’t do it.

Q: If you had limited pool time, can dryland help?
A: Without a doubt. When I was getting my Masters degree, I got hold of every study that had ever been done on swimming and swimming with exercise and there are hordes of studies done in the 1950s and 1960s. They had paper back then and they wrote on it and every study showed that the group that swam and did something – whether it was run or comprehensive dryland or a moderate weight program – that group improved more and improved longer than the one that did just swimming. Now the one that does just swimming is going to swim better during the season, especially the early season.

Q: Could you comment on training and racing straight-arm freestyle?
A: I can comment a lot on that. I am not a proponent of that. Once again, there are exceptions. There have always been things that have come up that some people make look good. I had a swimmer that was winning everything in Florida and we heard about bent-arm backstroke so I had him doing this – he still won.

I remember when John Naber used to do his backstroke turn with his head out of the water. He is 6’ 6” – went 15:10 for a mile. He could do anything he wanted and it looked good. It hurt backstroke sprinting in our country for two or three years trying to copy that. He and I still disagree with that, but I have got the microphone.

And Tracy Caulkins at the World Champs in 1983. She was swimming breaststroke. She still won. She was coming up high enough to breathe through her navel. They were trying to transfer the downward momentum forward and it just doesn’t work in the water.

And then the University of Tennessee went 1 and 3 in the hundred fly at NCAAs one year. Both flyers turned like that, right? And I got in and tried it. From there to there. I hear laughter. From there to there is a lot faster, but you can’t sink to get the depth that you want to push off and right now you got some big strong kids doing straight-arm freestyle and we worked on it for three weeks a number of years ago and I had one guy that should have stuck with it. He didn’t. He was 5’ 10” and back in a normal suit he went 49.6 100 meters free. Mechanically, if you draw that arc and measure that arc, you have to be a lot faster. I have had this debate with a number of people and we will probably continue to have it because there will always be people that make things work that may not be best for them, but they are so good they can make it work.

Q: Would you rather get an age grouper with a weight-training background or an anaerobic background or an aerobic background?
A: I would rather have the aerobic background. I have done studies with 10 and unders – body weight versus weight room. I split my group when I was at Auburn University. I didn’t want to coach the older kids – you know how they can be. I wanted to coach 10 and unders. Train for 30 minutes and jump off the diving board (and we did), but we would go to the weight room – one group would do a set of drylands – same length of time – same number of sets. The other group would do weights – it came out the same. But we had flyers drop from :45 to :35 in six weeks. It is all strength. That is why people cheat to get strength cheaply or easily. You have got to find a better way to get strength, but my fear in age groupers – I have a strength coach. I set up the program and he takes care of safety and technique and those are real, real important in the weight room.

The weight room isn’t a panacea. It isn’t the thing that makes you good. It’s maybe the last resort and along the way you have got body-weight exercise. If I could put all my swimmers in gymnastics and they wouldn’t hurt themselves (they are very uncoordinated selves), I would. Body-weight strength is incredible. I would love to have that.

Q: If you have a 90-minute session, how much time do you devote to dryland and how much to the water?
A: It depends on your age group. It depends how good they are. Are they beginners? Because beginners – just putting them in the water will make them stronger. At age 10 – 13, and this is purely a guess, I would have them do the dryland at home – is that good? Find a way. If they watch television, at the first TV commercial they do 10 pushups. Second TV commercial – 15 sit-ups. Third TV commercial – sit on the couch and jump up or sit on the chair and jump up – come down and touch the chair again. I don’t like them to jump without something stopping so they don’t go past 90 degrees at their knee joint. Then take a commercial off. Two things – they can get stronger…and they quit watching TV – both good things.

Thank you very much.

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