Multi-Level Considerations in Training The Active and Athletic Adult by Charlie Hoolihan (2005)


INTRO: Charlie and I actually go way back. Charlie was one of my swim coaches when I was about 15 years old! He was a swimmer at LSU so I have always had a great deal of respect for him. He’s really had a rich life in terms of athletics – being an athlete, being an Iron-man Triathlete, and being an age group swim coach for many years in the New Orleans area. Most recently he’s decided to take up a new venture in terms of personal training and working with adult fitness and he will talk with us quite a bit today about sort of a multi-dimensional approach to adult fitness training, but one thing I did want to share with you is that Charlie is from Mandeville, LA, which is on the north side of Lake Ponchartrain. Maybe Charlie will share with us a little bit about what he has gone through in the storm and the challenges that he faces – not just being a part of community and family of course, but how it’s affected the swimming community. It was a challenge to get Charlie here and it was very much of a challenge for us to even communicate with Charlie in the last couple of weeks and I am just very, very happy that he was able to make it! I introduce Charlie Hoolihan.

Coach Hoolihan: Thanks. I am going to tell a story about Scott. Scott was an incredibly great and well- trained tri-athlete. He found the so-called Olympic short distance, and went to compete in the 1981 Ironman (along with myself – he was 3 and I was 4). Scott was really well trained. He and his buddy, Ron Franco, whom I later worked for, were in great shape. They had trained together. They had news cameras following them around and newspaper articles written about them. As for myself, I think I was 27 or 28 at the time and had been running marathons, plus I had been a former college swimmer. I had a lot of run training and I had the swimming background to fall on – I could do that. As for the bike, well, I rode the bike probably twice – a 70 mile bike ride and a 50 mile bike ride – and got off that bike after that. These were my only two training rides for the Ironman leading up to the ’81 Ironman! Scott has always been known for going out really fast and finishing at the backend is kind of “Oh dear God, please help me now”. Now, in an Ironman – which lasts anywhere from 8-20 hours – “Oh dear God, please help me now” can last from an hour to 8 hours!

During the race, I was way behind he and Ron – probably 3-4 hours back of the bike because I had an hour swim and 9 hour bike ride and then I did pretty good on the run because I was just kind of cruising along watching the whales and I come in to about the second to third last run aid station and there is Scott in a lawn chair! He said “Hey Charlie”– like I had just walked into a bar at Baron Rouge! Dear Lord – it was a rough, rough time.

Let’s talk about Katrina – Think of New Orleans. Think of how proud you are of your cities! When I read things like 52% of the American population doesn’t think that New Orleans should be rebuilt, I want to just yell out loud! Think of how much you love your city – if you do love your city – and think of the million people that have been displaced in Biloxi and New Orleans. It is just amazing – it is catastrophic. We were lucky, but some of our friends weren’t. John Leonard told me when we were talking that they had lost a friend of a woman who had worked in Brennan’s Restaurant, and it is all kinds of stories like that. It is an amazing thing that happens in the United States today and hopefully the lesson we will all learn is that it should never happen again anywhere! Dear God – we looked like freaking Baghdad, or the Tsunami countries. But, the help and the aid and all that, is just wonderful. I just wanted to thank you all for thinking about it and whatever you are doing – wonderful, but you know, whenever you hear anybody say a city shouldn’t be rebuilt – whether it is LA or New Orleans or Chicago during a huge snowstorm – I mean – who wants to live in that, right? You know, just remember how much you love and care about where you live and no one should ever say that you shouldn’t have to go back.

Anyway, Multi-dimensional training for active and athletic adults – whew – that is a lot of words right there! I was a swim coach for 30 years and then coached Masters, and as I got out of swimming and got more into personal training this whole new world opened up to me in terms of different styles of training. I just kind of started the program from scratch and built it up. The goals here would be an increased revenue stream. Secondly, you want to help individuals live long, healthy and active lives. You want to help individuals achieve competitive goals and you want to educate yourself to many different protocols and enhance your marketability if you are a coach, As for me, as a swim coach – we always lifted weights. We always ran. After we were done with short course we would train for a triathlon that was in May. (Only because, as an age group coach, I am a little ADD and just get bored watching people swim up and down.) We did all kinds of cross-training and you know, I wasn’t any better than average successful age group coach so – and I have always felt that our guys did just as well as any of the other swim only teams. I am going to run through really the swimming part of it quickly since you guys are all swimmers yourselves.

Your participants are going to be fitness and weight management people – competitive swimmers, tri-athletes, cross-trainers and probably, if you are in a health club setting like I am – you are going to have an equal number of all three. Your fitness swimmers are former swimmers, random newbies, injured runners, elderly and obese people. These two are probably your largest potential untapped market. Because your tri-athletes and your swimmers are going to come regardless, but if you can figure out ways to enhance your marketability to get to these guys and have a plan that will help them out – then that is going to be tremendous. These are the goals – your competitive people – these are their competitive goals. We know what the swimmers goals are, the tri guys and gals just want to get out of the water faster, all right? I kind of take that to a second tact and say I want you to get out of the water EASIER. In an Ironman – if you swim an hour or an hour and a half and you are going to bike for 5 ½ hours and then run for 4 hours – I mean – look at the proportion of that. If they are a competitive swimmer, I just tell them to swim just 30 minutes a week – two times, Don’t worry about it. Get on that bike and run, because that is the way it is. You have got the skills and you can get out of the water easier than anybody else. Then there are cross-trainers using swimming as a secondary training technique to support their primary sport of choice and then all the above guys are also in it for looks and weight management and feel better.

What if you have Swim-only training? Swim more, swim faster, swim more, faster, and all you can do is subtle set manipulation and subtle technique manipulation. You guys that are swim coaches – this is what happens and this is what I found: There is not a lot that you can do in the pool that is different, Technique advances seem to be every decade and I have been out of it for about four or five years so, and if I am not getting this right, “Science of Swimming” by Doc Councilman, “Swimming Faster” by Maglisgow, “The Undulating Breaststroke and Long Breakouts” in the late 80’s Olympics and then Boomer and TI. If you guys are familiar with the TI – Total Immersion and Bill Boomer’s stuff – it is all about alignment and creating good aquatic position. From year to year to year there are things that are going on – advances in the human body, knowledge about the human body – that are incredible. Now resistance training we all know about, but I want to kind of give you a little basis of what I like to do and how it is different. There are other cardiovascular considerations we are going to do and stress-reduction too.

Alignment, core and flexibility: Alignment is a balanced structural framework that allows for fluid movement mechanics in accordance with the body’s original design – remember original design when we get to it. Core –The core training has been huge in the last few years and everybody is doing core training – even swimmers. Basically, there are a lot of definitions of core, but here is what I think it is: An area of attachment and coordination and synchronization of the appendages. Flexibility: the normal capability of all soft tissues, mostly muscles and joints, to elongate or stretch in the normal full range of motion. I want you to remember three words – “body’s original design” – which is the normal capability of soft tissues to use a full range of motion. The body’s original design allows for fluid in symmetrical movement. Somehow we have managed to screw up the body’s design. All load bearing joints are designed to transmit vertical loading – your head to your feet. If you are standing tall, your head is resting on your feet, ideally, based on the body’s original design, from top to bottom in an equal lateral and linear manner. There is an equal lateral relationship between and extension, meaning you should not be more forward or backwards. Muscles must work together in pairs; equal laterally to help the body stay in balance during movement. How many of you guys watched somebody breathing on one side the whole time in the pool? Imagine somebody who runs like that. So, if you breathe on one side the whole time – for your whole entire career – no matter how fast it makes you, you are going to get cock-eyed in some way or another. Here is the upper body – the internal rotation of the shoulders is common in swimmers. Can everybody stand up please? Just stand how you would normally stand – please do not make corrections, or adjustments, and no shaking out. Look at your neighbor’s hands. Okay now – now look at your hands – just keep looking. How many knuckles can you see in that person’s hands? Can you see all of their knuckles? Yes, no, maybe?? Some people you can – some people you can’t. How many of you can see more knuckles on one hand than the other hand? Now, of the hand that you can see more knuckles on – Ask that person if they have shoulder problems in that side?! Okay so – if you see hands – if you see knuckles in the hands – that is internal rotation. That means (and how many swimmers do you know that stand like this? Most?) Lets say most swimmers stand like this. The body is made for the body to be upright and for the shoulders to be back – not squeezed back, but there is a certain spot where the body is supposed to be, Another common distortion is forward tilt of the head and cervical column – forward flexion of the thoracic cage (which is your rib cage and your upper back) Only backstrokers have the best scapular separation. If you can place more than one hand between someone’s shoulder blades and you can’t feel the very edge of that shoulder blade, that is too much and I will guarantee you that most swimmers and myself included, have poor separation in the scapular area. Just after I learned this, I was watching Michael Phelps in an interview, sitting down and I was thinking – oh my – he is so fast, but oh geez, look at that rotation!

Now on to the lower body. Breaststrokers experience lower body external rotation of hips and knees. Watch people walk – the feet and the knees and the hips are turned out – balanced on the lateral side of the feet when you walk – that is the outside part of your walk. Most people walk from the heel to the little toe. Well, lets see – most of the surface area of my foot is from the heel to the big toe, but I would like to balance on the less part. So, that is the way the body is made for you to walk on the medial part – the inside part – heel to big toe. Lets take a look at page 2. Here is a guy with perfect alignment and there is the spine – just to kind of give you an idea of where the spine should be. We talked about vertical loading from the head to the feet? Look at the middle page –the first guy is perfectly lined up. You can see from this x-ray that you are looking at hips resting on the knee, which is resting on the ankle, which is resting on the bottom of the floor. Now, look at the second person who has hyper-extended knees and feet. Okay, now you have hips resting on the knees and stomping – your whole body weight is now resting on your knees. Then you are taking that whole body weight and then driving it into the ankles – that is not to mention anything that is happening to the back, there is something probably going on in the back right there. You know, we think hyperextension is great in the water, because you can kick with a whole lot of effort and intensity. However in running (or if you are going to do both), or you are going to lift weights or yoga or Pilates or anything like that – if you have got this hyper-extension you have got to really be aware of that.

Lets stand up again. We are going to do some exercises together to improve alignment, and then I am going to try to demonstrate the others myself. Arm circles – this will improve for your forward rotation and every swimmer should do this – especially if you are over 20! So you have to get arms apart and squeeze your shoulder blades together and point your thumbs forward – can you see my thumbs? Everybody got their shoulders squeezed together, your head straight – alright now – lets do 20 forward circles – keep your scapula attached – together – okay – now turn your thumbs backwards like you are hitch-hiking. Keep your shoulder blades together. Place your fingers on your temple and squeeze the elbows together, make sure you are squeezing the scapula together. We are going to do that 20 times. Now, put your hands above your head and turn your hands up to the ceiling. Now what I want you to do is just lift your shoulder blades up and down. There is no movement in the elbows so look at your hands and go up and down. Now – get your partner and look at each other’s hands again. Now, in most people there is a difference in the way their hands are laying at their sides. Some of you guys may have seen real dramatic changes – some maybe no change at all, but generally I see a lot of changes almost immediately. If you are standing you want to see thumbs and that is it and it needs to be natural.

What we just did was arm circles, elbow squeezes and overhead scapular lifts. You can set up your own training protocol – I call these TYLX. T – scapular squeeze– scapular squeeze at a slow pace where your muscles are activating and forming and my shoulder blades are touching – touch – touch – touch – that is a T. I am coming up here to a Y – Y, Y, Y, yes, yes, they are down and then I am going to do L’s – in my physiology guy –– L, L, I am trying to keep a 90 degree angle. Okay, before I was bringing them down and in – now I am bringing my shoulder blades down. Then X’s – which is not really an X, X, X, so you are setting your shoulder blade in one spot, which is important for your arm, at the clavicle. So, if your muscles are doing this all the time – you are telling your body that “hey – I want your scapula – which is sitting back here – I want you to come up and here”! So, if you have shoulder issues – you have got to set your scapula right. You have got to do things that will help you get the scapula strong.

Here are a few additional exercises: Static back – Do you have a back issue? Instead of doing what you are doing right now, what you need to be doing is laying on the floor, with your knees up and your legs resting on the chair! The reason we do that that some of you like to lie on pillows and things like that because it feels groovy and great. However, there is something going on in the spine that is out of alignment – that is creating either a muscle spasm or creating some kind of issue where the hips are miss-aligned or something like that. If you lay on the floor – on a hard surface, and your legs are up – what you are doing is re-aligning your hips! The hips are supposed to be like this, all right?

Everybody heard of anterior pelvic tilt? Posterior pelvic tilt? Remember the spine pictures? There are examples of both in the spine pictures we have here. Okay, if you have an excessive anterior tilt you are driving your spine into your hip socket and your hips – now each vertebrae is now resting on each little vertebrae – all the way up the line. Okay, so if you are laying down flat, your hips will gradually fall into an aligned position. Now, it does not happen immediately. So, if you are like this, there is no demand on the spine, but at least you are getting your hips into the right position. The second thing that you can do is also drop a leg; put one leg on the chair and one leg straight. Okay, now when you walk here is how the hips move. The hips are like a little “bolt”, so when you lay with one leg up on the chair and one leg straight – you are aligning your hips in a walking position – does that make sense? It is called static back.

Okay, try sitting against the wall as far back as you can. Put your head back and keep your spine straight. Now what is happening is those two exercises will start the process of letting your spine get out of back spasms. However, if it is something really structural – that may be a doctor’s issue. It’s necessary to do a counter stretch. Here’s what it looks like: I am resting my hands on a counter or some kind of object like this, and I turn my toes in so that my hamstrings turn off… I am allowing my spine to stay out of demand, and I am letting the curvatures of my spine try to find neutral, and I am just hanging out right here – just letting everything relax. Kind of make yourself feel like you are weightless. Now, that stretch we were just talking about that swimmers always do – great stretch, but what you do is you change that stretch so that your thumbs are up, You need a grip. So what I am going to do with that stretch on this exercise called wall clock is instead of putting my hands like this that most people do, I am going to turn my thumbs up and I am going to stretch right here with straight arms.

Now, the physiology of a lat occurs – it starts back here in your hip and it comes all the way up here and comes up underneath here and attaches to the arm. Remember we talked about the thoracic cage and bending forward and all of that? The lats also pull you forward – a back muscle pulls you into forward flexion – that is not good, it’s a thing that pulls you out of the ideal alignment. You want to be here and here. We want those hands to be like that. Okay we’re going to do this typical stretch here and we go thumbs up which turns that attachment into the arm of the lat, into a position where you can really get it stretched. You get to hang out here for a little bit – spread your hands just a little bit here and then maybe just a little bit more – okay – like a clock.

To stretch the pectoral muscles: Do a corner or doorway stretch. Have you got a doorway that is not real wide? Make a 90-degree angle and stretch and hang out here. A primary source that I can give you today is a book called “Being Free – A Revolutionary Method for Stopping Chronic Pain”. That is where I got about half of these exercises and it is all about this alignment stuff so if you have got back aches, neck aches, toe aches, earaches – whatever – you get this book and you kind of go through it and run it – it will help you.

All right – next – Core or conduit training: Now, what does a core do? It is a conduit, meaning that it teaches the body; it helps the lower body communicate with the upper body. Here are some general rules: All movement travels through the spine and trunk/core. Do you rotate when you walk? Yes you do because when I am walking this arm is here in gait – this leg is here. This hip is at this angle right here so the right hip is back, the left hip is forward and the right hip is back and the right shoulder is forward. Just like in swimming, all movement has an element of rotation to it and the muscles of the spine and trunk line up and unwind during rotation of movement. And we can think about that in terms of swimming, but think about walking and movement. When you are walking the muscles that surround your spine and start down into your hips and come all the way up to where your shoulders unwind – these are some muscles that are unwinding right now and stretched right here – these are winding up. When I take my next step forward then they unwind. It is a constant winding up and unwinding. Just like swimming – it is winding up and unwinding – just like a baseball pitcher – coming back here – throwing all the way here, winding and unwinding – tennis, golf, etc., so it is all about winding and unwinding your trunk during rotation and the core should be strengthening in its ability to extend more than flex. What does the crunch train – what position does the crunch train? When you are doing a crunch – what are you doing? Yeah – I am working on my posture, baby – and here I am. Forward – I got a six-pack, but you know – I have tightened my rectus some more, so much that I am yanking my hips here and I am pulling my ribs here.

Now remember when we were talking about the thoracic cage. Lets go a little bit further into the thoracic cage. Everybody bend over like this – take a deep breath and exhale. Everybody come up here like this and tip your ribs up and you grab and exhale. Why do you want to train this? That is a popular exercise and it is great on thighs – if I was feeding a roomful of bodybuilders – we would not be having half of these conversations, but you guys are swimmers. What movement in swimming is good for crunches? Yeah turns – I think turns. Your back muscles – coming back here – keep you from falling forward so probably in the flip turn and I don’t know this for certain, but when you are into swimming, think about it. Not just belly to get my legs over – I think it is more back. So crunches are not a bad thing. Now don’t get me wrong – I am not saying, but can you imagine if we had time to get to the weights and all that and that procedure we will talk about how to set up your strength training to balance it out, but bench press tends to give you internal rotation – forward rotation and most guys in the weight room – how many of you guys belong to a gym and you walk in that job and you see these massive guys or gals, standing there like this. You can see their hands. Look at their internal rotation of the shoulders – the hands are almost right here like this, and they are leaning forward and then they are going to do crunches for their abs. So that is kind of how you structure your training program – depends on how well you think it through and it is all based on your alignment.

In the finished world there are three planes of motion – straight-ahead, side-to-side, and rotation. What plane of motion are we using mostly in core training? Straight ahead and we should use rotation, but most people will be doing crunches – they are doing back extensions, you know they are doing whatever else they do, you know, but it is mainly straight ahead. A little bit of lateral work yeah, and some rotation, but it should be in all three planes of motion and it should be mostly rotation – This is my philosophy. Training should include a combination of bracing, engaging and maybe drawing in. Somebody mentioned Pilates – the breathing is important. The problem with crunches is that only the external abdominal muscles get used in a crunch, but not the deeper abdominal muscles, which can be activated in Pilates, or in the exercise we’ll be doing right now. Put your hand on your back, clear your throat, and feel the back moving. Do you feel some stimulation in the back when you go like that? Now go ahead and contract on your own or if you need to clear, do it again. Now hold it – okay – that is bracing – abdominal bracing – what you have just done is you have turned on all the activity of your trunk and spine and made a strong core around your body. This is a combination of three separate types of philosophies that are out there with core training. In swimming, the core is the primary stabilizer because there is no ground contact. What you probably need to do is to do more things on the Swiss ball. It simulates another unstable surface like swimming.

What you are actually doing when you are anchoring is making your core work to get your appendages in the right spot. You are trying to allow the hand to talk to this foot – through the lap and the hip musculature. Core and training – kind of examples – side crunch – you guys are familiar with the plank? Let’s take that a little further, with rotational planks – If you are doing back exercises it is all that. Stability while training – a wheel barrel walkout is good for your scapula as well. Okay now, my core is engaged, similar to what I want in swimming. I want that whole thing to be really bent. What is next? Russian Twist with a med ball. Okay, now I have a picture of a med ball in my hand – rotation – rotation – rotation, rotation. Now I am touching the ground – pipe to pipe – med ball again. Now, you are basically just dropping your hips slightly – kind of like cats and dogs and bring it up, down, up. How about the Cobra? Here thumbs up, lift, lift here with lift more scapula – here it is like that rolling wheel – stretch it out – engage. If you feel any of this in your back then you are extending the range of motion too far.

Core strength bearing training – where is my anchor? These things are great. Lets stand on this – you can probably come right up here for me. Okay now we are talking about flexion and extension. Remember when we bent over and went where is my rear? It is kind of like a squat – down, up, streamline… You should try to keep your shoulders in line with your hips. Let’s try single leg lift with a triceps press. One more. Remember we were talking about that whole opposite hand and opposite leg? Well, these are just things that I kind of thought of with swimming in mind. I think resistance-training programs should be structured to include these exercises that require multi-muscle groups and will include core stabilization. So, this is for core conditioning stuff. I know I showed you a bunch of stuff from the Perform Better guys upstairs – they are good for one-minute stuff. Actually, I have a catalog too, you can go on my website if you want to get more information – those are both good sources. Paul Check as well. I don’t think they carry anything by him.

Flexibility – it should be called extensibility because when we consider flexibility, we consider extension and elongation and stretching. This is flexion – this is extension. Would everybody stand up? Okay, now – hold your hands up like this. Okay – now touch your belly! That exercise – see what the problem is? Weight loss programs in swimming – we are talking about racing – we are talking about swimming – we are talking about total immersion and bloomer and all that stuff right there – aquatic alignment. If your belly and back is weak or one is stronger than the other – something is sinking and then that aquatic alignment is disrupted.

All right – stretching – there are only two principles in all the research on stretching – there is tons of research on stretching that stand out consistently – over and over again and hopefully you know both of these: Stretching before the body is warmed up – you can get injured so you want to stretch out when the body is warmed up, all right? My swimmers would do our swim warm-up for 10-15 minutes and then we would get out and stretch (we swim outdoors in Louisiana and it is kind of cold sometimes though) and then a very ballistic stretching which is causing the muscles to boom, boom, boom, boom, Normal ranges of individual motion should be considered and there can be many structural impediments to range of motion (and there is a wide range of motion angles for each joint, according to various texts). You can read one text and they are going to say your hamstring should be this mobile and you can read another text and they are going to say your hamstring should be that mobile. I don’t know what the answer is in terms of where your ideal mobility is, but somewhere in there – there is an answer, but it is mostly how you feel in what you are doing. Who has tight hamstrings? Okay sir – would you lay on your back for me? I am going to pull this hand – keep your leg as straight as possible. If you had normal range of motion it would be about like here. Okay, I know you’ve got jeans on – okay, we’ll forgive you then …remember what I said? This is normal range of motion – normal from the standpoint of where everything should be and this is hyper-mobility. It may be good – it may be not – do you run some? Do you do other things besides swim? Yeah.

All right, so that, you know hyper-mobility or hyperextension, while admired in swimmers, could be a source of injury. Becky, is that your name? Shannon – where Shannon is – I am not sure – loose hamstrings – loose hamstrings mean that there is not normal pull here so there is more pull where they go anterior – they are stretched – they are relaxed you know, so if you go anterior and posterior. Q. If you had to choose one as part of being more advantageous than the other – would you say that the stretching prior to the time of exercise or after? A: As long as you stretch – well, the studies are inconclusive on that, but you should stretch before you warm-up. And there are some studies that say you are stronger in the weight room if you just stretch in between these exercises and there are some that say there are no results and some say that you get injured easily after – so there is no – these are the only two that out of all the stuff that I have seen – is that before the body is warmed up – then avoid ballistic stretching. Everything else is whatever you think it is you know – as long as you take it easy. Herb Miller states that range of motion should be equal on both sides so, if I am stretching both these two – our two subjects here – the tight hamstrings and the young lady with flexible hamstrings – wringer – should be the same on each side. So in your flexibility if you are a swimmer – just like here and here – and you are stretching, you can only go this far with this ham, but you can go all the way back with this one – there are some issues there that you are going to have to deal with later on.

Myofascial release. Who has a tight back? If you leave here with one thing – learn how to do this – who has got a shoulder pain right now? In the medial movement – do you go “ow”? Please demonstrate a good squat for me. Hold your hands over your head – and I want you to just sit and stand with your heels flat up to that chair – turn around – all right – just sit – actually you should do it this way – stand up – sit – See where his hands and everything are aligned right there? Okay he has got good alignment right here – now stand up again. He has pretty good alignment – his arms are aligned with his ears so it is not going to be dramatic – I will just show you – with me – okay – see the difference. I am doing it forward like this: My whole upper back is jammed up, You are not as bad probably as you think you are, but we are going to do this. All right, so right here – doing myofascial release is when you release small, tiny control mechanisms in the muscle fiber, and those control mechanisms sense how long the muscles need stretch. They are a safety valve. So, if you are tight or hyper-mobile – even Shannon’s hyper-mobility – there is a point in which her hamstring muscle is going to go tell her to stop the stretch – because we don’t want your foot going on your heel. (Only in the Cirque de Sole you have seen people with feet behind their ear!) Okay, so we are going to go real slow here, here, here, down each vertebrae as slow as you can – you were good on that wall set – you should be going about five seconds. Now start at the top of your shoulders and roll back – raise it up to mid-back – very, very slowly – if you find a spot that goes whoa – stay right there for about five seconds, and just let it relax. Okay Chris has got some muscle pain that is right here – move your arm – there it is – now I want you to do is – you are going to go and lay on the wall, and you are going to roll, starting at the pec – Because the pec is what pulls everything forward. Then you are going to roll – and if you find a spot that is painful – scream out loud – no, now? You find a spot that is painful you go ahead and just hang out on it and not if it is searing pain and you are going to yell bloody murder – then when that is done and you are sitting over here you just keep rolling – I want you to roll like this. Your hand position indicated to me that you were really good upper back. Okay so, this is what we are doing here, when you have repetitive movements. You saw how much more – how much better he was than I was and I haven’t done this in two days because I have been on the road for 14 days so I am real jammed up. I have a shoulder injury and I could not do one pushup – when I did the workshop on this I basically did what she was doing right here – I could do ten pushups. I could feel it you know? There was still some soreness there, but I think you can do it too.

Okay, so the idea guys, is that this will make you live longer. We talked about alignment and things like that being all jammed up. If we are like this and how many of us have said, I am too old for such and such? This type of stretching will allow you to get into that alignment Just like you saw – now we all go back to our same daily routines – it is not a cure-all, but it starts you on the road. You know, if you have a knee injury or a hip injury or a nose injury or anything like that – when you find – it is 90% of time it is going to be an alignment injury – repetitive use injury – rotator cuff injury – what is that? Other than lifts – which are similar to massage, but you stop and hang out, if you got a specific injury that you can stand a long time on – what I usually do is spend 5 or 10 minutes. Just to kind of get started and warm-up, we will maybe do it between sets. When I started back to working on the weights again, I would do it every set – I would do a set – if I was doing chest – something like this. That was in my circuit, all right? Just hang out there as long as you want. The question was if you have something like tendonitis or something like that – would you do that? Yes, you would – if you have got a source of inflammation somewhere in your joints, and it is traumatic and this gentleman here – who maybe – I don’t want to put him on med ball or anything like that if he has had a crash and his clavicle is now coming forward or anything like that, but you can certainly work around there because his traumatic injury by falling down – Yeah – stretching like that is like a deep tissue massage, but what you guys are doing is you are being very mindful of it. And I am using this for shoulders

If I am a personal trainer and I got a guy – I am telling you – he is fit – am I going to make him do a lot of crunches? Am I going to make him sit down in a machine and do a lot of extensions and curls? No – my goal with him is to get him straight up because he spends half of his time training in one position you a swimmer too? If something is your passion and you want to do it – it is your thing – that is great, but your other training stuff – you have got to deal with – getting everything else like that. Just like swimmers – this is your passion, but you have got to be aware that this is where you need to be to prevent injury and keep going on. It is like a car – if you bought a pair of $500 tires and those tires were guaranteed for 200,000 miles (yeah, I’ve got a pair of $500 tires) but you never aligned it and you never rotated it and you always took left turns – well, the left side is going to get all worn out you know? It is just like that.

Resistance training: I am going through this really fast but I want you to get two studies here. Build with maximal strength, that is my certification. Muscle aggravation equals higher metabolism – resting and active. If you have more lean muscle mass – strength lean muscle mass – you have a higher metabolism – no ands or buts. Here is an early base study: They divided groups into resistance training, endurance training and concurrent (that is endurance and resistance training together). The resistance group improved at a resting metabolic rate by 115 calories a day by the end of the study. The concurrent group improved – that is cardio and resistance together, 89 calories a day, but they were doing cardio so they were adding more calories burned in their total workouts. The endurance group only – their caloric burning decreased by 50 calories a day! That means they burned less calories than they did in their exercise program. How many people do you know that they swim all the time and can’t lose weight? Or runners or cyclists or tri-athletes? Okay – this isn’t a panacea, but there is something missing from their program. Resistance.

Now, we are going to take a look at the very last thing that I have: This study was done by the same woman who has had her muscle tone and bone density measured in experienced – meaning 10 years or more – 70 year old female runners, swimmers and weight-lifters. The results were the muscle activation and bone density of the swimmers and runners were similar to sedentary women of comparable ages, while the weight-lifters compared favorably to women in their 30’s. Q. I have seen stuff like this too and if that is a lap swimmer okay, but if it was a competitive swimmer doing 4500 yards five days a week I don’t know if that would hold true. For bone loss especially yes – I mean – they found it in walkers – walking does not prevent bone loss. (See visual aid) Here is another thing; this area right here looks like the brain or an egg. That is muscle mass. The little hole in the middle – that is bone marrow. The white that surrounds the hole is bone mass. This is the 27-year-old moderately active female. The second slide is a 50 something year old inactive female – you can see the difference. There is a lot less muscle integrity – a lot of osteoporosis. A lot of body fat because the light circle and the darkening around the white – that is body fat. The last slide is a 63-year-old strength-training woman. She has more in common with the 27 year old moderately active female than her almost in age counterpart. Next slide – it is a hormone thing and this is where I hope to answer your question.

Strength training increases growth hormones and testosterone levels while lowering insulin and cortisol levels – what we do when we grow! All right, that is growth hormones – same with testosterone levels Lowering insulin – can cause diabetes – causes metabolic syndrome. We eat too much starch and sugar – we have hyperinsulemia possibly. Cortisol is a primary stress hormone, which does a lot of bad things to you. Active strength muscle fibers go dormant then die through lack of activity as we age – this is called sarcopenia. We lose about 10% a decade after age 30 – oh my God – 10% of my muscle fibers have performed strength activities die and go away as I age each decade.

Strength training can reduce this by 50% or more. Now how cool would it be at age 70 and still have the same strength – being within 10-15% of your strength capacity as at age 30? That is cool! Extensive cardiovascular training increases cortisol levels, and depletes glycogen levels. If you train 2 hours – once you train more than an hour you are already sucking out your glycogen and you are increasing your cortisol level. You guys – I am giving you things that you can think about to add in or balance out a little bit. It’s more research about strength. All right – so, the 4500 yards that you are doing a day – is that strength or endurance? Okay – I am a sprinter – enough said, but I am also and I really like lifting weights and I always put it into all of my programs when I have Masters, as well as with young swimmers. We always do just as well as anybody else we have just swam – that is the only thing that I can hold this up to – there is no research that says swimmers will do better if you do weight training. There is research that says you need to do strength training in order to maintain the things that you are doing. There is research that says that cardiovascular training by itself is not the panacea and not the ultimate thing that we do want to do by itself, as we age, we need more strength training.

Now coaches, if you are coaching a kid, I can’t say that it is going to make them faster swimmers. But, if you do the strength training program designed in your personal program or in the program that you have for your swimmers, you can get them stronger over the course of 12 weeks or competitive cycle. This meet, this meet, this meet – they are roughly 12 weeks apart – I want to do this – now, that is kind of how this guy was coaching. It was like high school state in the fall, short course state in the spring and long course state in the summer – boom, boom, boom – three meets a year and if there were nationals involved it could be you know – three meets a year – with basically 12 cycles around that with cross stages in there too, all right? Even if you are a distance person – why not get stronger – why not follow up your muscle fibers as much as you can in a six or twelve week program once a year, why not? You are not getting paid for it. Yes, maybe at masters nationals and really think good things like that, but the fall – I mean – just get strong in the fall.

Swimming is not going to go away. Training should be a full body format – two or three times per week, at least once under supervision of a coach – you can be that coach and you can set up a weight deck, Your goal is to get started within the 8-12 repetition range and the only thing – the only thing that I am encouraging you to do is just to get stronger so you can fire up as many of your strength and speed muscles obviously, as you can. We have all heard of that Type 1 and Type II muscle fibers: Endurance fibers and strength fibers? All of us have a whole different level of them. I am a sprinter and I did the Ironman. I got money to go to school to do the 50 freestyle, but I was never going to get money to go and do the mile like Scott. Scott and I have different muscle fiber composition. I should be lifting more weights than Scott should, just because I am aging – we are both getting older – not you – you are handsome. You know, but your goal in that 12-week cycle is, I am going to see how strong I can get. Also my goal is to find the maximal strength for 5-10 repetitions and then if you are going to do anything else for the rest of the year – I am going to maintain that strength. For example, you could do 40 pounds – boom, I can do 40 pounds six times! So, you are an endurance swimmer and you want to do an endurance strength training circuit? Now you know – we will back off 50% all right? Not bad – 20 pounds – boom – 2 minutes for my 200 – boom, boom, boom! The trouble with most people is that when they set up strength training programs they start with 10 pounds and go – I can do 100 of them! It is the chick program – kickbacks – inner/outer thigh – it is just very, very mindless. You don’t really have a good program and you guys are swimmers and competitors and all of that.

You understand that you have to have goals and you know that your 100 freestyle time is a minute and if you are doing the repeats and you are doing – I mean – you are doing hundreds on 2 minutes and you are doing 1:55’s, but you know that hundred freestyle is 1 minute and you go okay, well I will hold the 1:55’s under two minutes right now and you need to get better than that. I need to get better than that. I need to get you know, closer to my hundred free time. Or, if it is a 500 average or things like that. Same thing with strength –I mean, you wouldn’t just go – you wouldn’t just say okay – I am going to hold 1:55’s with no knowledge at all of what your best 100 free is, right? Same thing if you have a strength-training program – what you want to do is you want to have it so that you understand what you are doing. Exercise to the multi-muscle group and to the peripheral heart action. That means you set up a circuit where you alternate upper, lower and full body core exercises. Now I thought of this – this is actually a physiological term, but when I was a coach, thinking about swimmers – I am thinking – you know – when you swim you use your whole body – you use your arms and your legs – what can I do in the weight room to simulate that and I came up with – triads – Upper body – lower body – core – your heart is going crazy. So you are actually as close to swimming as you can get.

Exercise your program – why would a swimmer squat? Well I don’t know, but certainly this motion (and plus with weight on your back) – what is happening to your core? You are able to streamline you know – your ability to streamline is good. Upper body crisis and pulls – chest press – horizontal pull-up – smaller muscle groups for stability and vanity – biceps, triceps and shoulders – multi-planar and you know what? Lateral training. Single arm press – multi-planar with cables or bands. Single arm – don’t fall on that ball – single arm row – rotation – rotation – tri-plane lunge. For example, I am going to do a lunge – here is the first direction – here is my lateral direction over here – here is my rotational direction, Good technique – good lunging and straight edge – straight edge – straight end. Now, unstable surfaces – I went to a balance conference about three months ago. They have research that shows there is 1100% increase in the stabilizing muscles on a bench press done on an unstable surface. Proper alignment must be maintained during all exercises. You have seen these old wobble horse and things like that – if you are balancing on an unstable surface like this – are you creating stability? No – you are just training yourself to be imbalanced, so proper alignment must be maintained.

Here are some resistance training tips: Free weights are superior to machines, is that good enough? Okay, standing is better than sitting – core = stabilization. If you don’t know much about free weights – get a good trainer to instruct you if you are not familiar with free weight training. Just go two sessions with a trainer and tell him what you want and just to give yourself an idea. That is not what they guarantee though. You want to ask them what their training philosophy is – do they train movement instead of muscles? I have a swimmer who does this – Ask them what their training philosophy is – training balance alignment – do they talk about alignment? That will get you here. Hey, I am going to put 500 pounds on your back – can I do this in my career? I was just happy early on and said oh yeah – great – all right? That’s great – you just did a lunge with 500 pounds – bring it back and do it again! Alignment – boom, boom, and boom – muscles make bones follow them. Exercises that are contraindicated for you are not necessary!

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