Introduction: In Germany, his wife and he come literally as a one-two punch. His wife, as you will see, literally wrote the book on the East German system. And as you can tell from his abridged Vita in our program, Dr. Franke is the leading scientific expert on this sort of thing in the world. But not only does Dr. Franke bring his scientific expertise to the table, but he brings a personal passion to expose this issue, to expose its proliferation now throughout the world, and to trace it down and snuff it out. Dr. Franke has done this at considerable risk and cost to himself and his family, and is finally beginning to see some rewards in the German court system in personal and professional vindication and now in the court of world opinion. And I take great pleasure in introducing to you one of our great friends and swimming’s great friends, Dr. Werner Franke.
Dr. Franke: Thank you very much for the kind introductory words, and before I start this talk I just have to explain that I hope everyone doesn’t feel it during my talk, that I just learned two hours ago that a dear friend and colleague of mine, Thomas Grass was aboard the Swiss airplane traveling back from a scientific meeting from New York to Geneva. So that is something that I’m immediately under, the influence of this information.
When I say usually, “Good morning,” this is certainly the wrong welcome, because I’m sure this will not be a good morning for you. In fact, I can guarantee almost that the next slightly more than an hour will be a bad morning for competitive swimming, for coaching, for FINA, for the IOC. But also, and more so, shockingly bad for science, and this is the motive that from one side is difficult to understand.
To me, and this is also in my original report to the general prosecutor in Germany, the whole affair, the drug abuse, is not the first order of matter of sports. Sports is just the ground of the objects being used. It is unfair, and it is a criminal behavior on the side of scientists and physicians, doctors. If they wouldn’t be there, if they wouldn’t be part, it wouldn’t be possible. And the scientific community, and there we have, in Germany, a particular problematic history. So I, and my wife in particular, we feel obliged simply not to remain silent, but to clearly tell the truth whether governments or whoever likes it or not. And being a scientist, being a full professor or international president of society, you have really no excuse not to speak out.
So we cannot be shocked, my wife and me, by the now altogether…my wife’s book got 22 civil court suits–won them all–in Germany and France so far. And I had six, also won them all. One is your…probably some of you in the audience know him–Ham Byer. I will show some quotations from him. He sued me in his own court–he is a judge. He lost bitterly. To beat a judge on his own ground, that gives me some satisfaction.
And also then, we now see, however, that the original report that I did to the prosecutors in Germany has led to a rethinking, gradually, and now you can see from the TV news and from the newspapers the result of that. I will come to this in a second. The inhuman–you wouldn’t believe some of the documents which I am going to show you–and cruel nightmare of drug abuse in an assumed innocent healthy human activity called sports. It’s something that surprises people, you’re not familiar with the background.
So I thank the organizers for coming here. Simply also because of the importance of your society internationally, and also because I feel obliged–my daughter plays basketball, is a German twice champion, she is a student of the national law; my son is a state champion involved in a rare combination foreign to me, the discus throw, so he comes after his mother, and I coach him. So I am in contact with the kids, so to say, with the young people, and I simply feel obliged for them because if this battle, if this war, as they call it, is lost you can no longer recommend high performance sports, to girls in particular. So it’s “Showdown at OK Corral” now, whether it’s back to the international boards.
So, a meeting like this, where you normally hear the good things you like about your sports, you will now be faced with something that we didn’t like to learn in history, but we had to face and also we had to make known to the public. My wife has always been active in that area. But in 1990, and that’s my side (okay, here it is), we had the turn, as we call it in Germany, East Germany, the GDR collapsed, and I had the possibility, a moment of history, only a few weeks, actually, to secure and preserve some historic documents. Top Secret, all classified, scientific reports. Top Secret doctoral theses (such things existed). And I did it against the wish of the government who had nominated me.
At that time, I was a member of the committee of the German National Scientific Council, I’d been in that council for many years. There had to be to evaluate the institute of the former Academy of Sciences of the GDR, to decide what should be done with these institutes in the Unified Germany. And I then discovered, knowing about that, knowing some of the names of physicians in sports, etc. At the same time the shredder machines were running hard. I mean there were loads of documents on all kinds of activities were destroyed. Classified material in particular.
But all of a sudden, while traveling from institute to institute to evaluate those, and talking to Eastern colleagues, I discovered that some documents were still there, showing drug abuse in an experimental way and also in a routine way in sports, which so far had escaped the shredder machines. And I then, with my wife, in a bit James Bond-ish action, found one spot that was a military medical academy (this was behind the fence) where we then, with a certificate and an allowance of a General doctor (this is the highest ranking military…in military medicine) whom I knew. So he gave me the allowance and we succeeded (it’s a long, nerve shaking story) to get these Top Secret doctoral theses out of that camp.
So I thought I had to do this and I dedicate this talk and this information to the clean athletes who have been cheated for decades without knowing this. Notably, I dedicate this to the girls and the women, because here certainly my wife has been right for all the decades. The use of the most powerful still high performance enhancing agent, the cheapest, also, that’s androgenic hormones, is the biggest threat. More than for male, for female athletes. Actually, it’s the end of real female athletes.
So, this is dedicated to them and I in particular do this today and I will give you the regards for them. I’m more a track and field person. I learned to know a number of swimmers, notably female swimmers in the last couple of months over these court cases. They telephoned my wife and gave the information and there are some particularly highly courageous women, who stand in court, face interrogations–it’s almost like a rape victim situation–so there were seven hours, for example, one of them was interrogated by the defendant lawyers and that was something that really went into gynecological details, etc. They had to undergo gynecological examinations by an expert doctor of the court, etc.
So these women are really admirable and I would just mention a few from them, because this would not have been possible without their action in court. Not only as victims and witnesses, but also some of them–we have this possibility in Germany–as co-plaintiffs, so you can join a criminal accusation as a private person as well. So for example, Christiane Knacke, was the first to mention this publicly. She’s now married in Austria. Rica Reinisch, Karen Koenig, Carola Nitschke, they have now different names. Ika Muntz. But also, they have not yet been in the court case but have already publicly been very outspoken. Erika Tolbert and Petra Schneider. Some of them suffering. Actually, some of them severely. And in particular, Beugart Meineka, who is politically, so to say, still on the other side, I would say, was very clear in court to tell frankly, not in the camera session but in the public session how she discovered that, after her career she had second thoughts about her past, what she was given. Then the police let her, in her room, read her files that the doctors, her swimming physician, Dr. Kipka, would have written about her. She then almost started trembling, was shocked, what had been done to her, telephoned her former coach who is now a coach in Austria, Rolf Glaeser, with whom she had a good, and still has, a fairly good relationship. And she confessed in court, not only the obvious deepening of her voice, which has not been much reversible in her case, but also how they went, at 15 years old with a classic steroid, and so forth, whenever they were preparing for a big meet, a big meeting. Then Dr. Kipka said, cynically, “Ah, you girls don’t have enough sex. Medals, you lead severely,” as a theatric proposal. And also she confessed publicly, and also on TV, that she is suffering from one of the normally rare, but androgen steroid associated liver tumors. So a doctor–she’s a surgery intern herself now–is suffering. Her tumor is a so-called benign tumor, but it can be deadly. I’ll show examples of this, by rupture of the liver structure and then internal bleeding.
So, last week, the first verdicts were said. My report was originally in 1991. It took seven years. And two doctors and three coaches were sentenced and this week, Monday actually, the second group of SC Dyamo Berlin, the sentence was against Dr. Bienus, the women’s national team physician as well and Rolf Glaeser, as I said, now in Austria. Dr. Glaeser is known to most of you after they had this sweeping victory of winning 11 out of 13 events, swimming events, in the Montreal Olympic Games. The world was wondering also about their shoulders and their voices, and the journalists asked the question, “How come that your girls have these hoarse, deep voice?” and Rolf Glaeser, he said, in an almost intonation like from Hogan’s Heroes, “They are here to swim and not to sing,” meaning that this expresses the attitude using these young girls, not as individuals, as human beings, but as material for bringing medals to the recognition of the nations.
Also in Germany we had this week published, decided a month ago in parliament, new enhanced drug laws. From now on it is a criminal act, violation of drug laws, even if a doctor prescribes this for performance enhancement in sports. So we have now… we are at par, so to say, with your drug laws of the FDA and this country.
So, some is achieved but it is still not easy. And we’re considered, my wife Brigetta and I, are in certain circles among the best hated people in the country because the prevailing thinking is, “If it’s good for the nation, then one can do a bit.” My wife has been speaker for two Olympic games of the German (West German, of course) track and field team, and after that she was adamant against this drug use, campaigning also against the doctors, who were the chief doctors of the Olympic team at the time. She was exposed to the mothers on the telephone. She spent hours and hours because somehow she had become the focus, from some TV shows, etc. And I have been sometimes there, so I cannot stand these mothers, you know, then after half an hour crying because they have noticed what is happening to their daughters. That goes so far that one of the side effects, that’s increased libido has also been taken advantage of. Increased libido from androgenic hormones taken advantage of by the coaches. And the coach said, “What do you want?” to the mother of that young lady. “What do you want? If this gets public, it will stick to the name of her, not mine.” And right, right they were, and still are.
So let me now show to you, and I have to be careful in stepping down here, how this went through history. I will use track and field for the example. Track and field was a pioneering, together with weightlifting, in this whole affair. So there are many examples, historic, first. But also track and field is different from other kinds of sports as some very intelligent, very individual people are there who very early on also were fighting against this abuse. So, when the book of my wife appeared (and this is currently being translated by Steven Ungaleider in this country into an English version, and updated, too) then the nation was almost stirred up and this was also here on “60 Minutes,” etc. So something needed to be done, and some of the results are now in the courtrooms.
So already in 1969, my wife had–after the Mexico games, where she was the speaker of the team–she had written an article in the German weekly. She originally was brought up in East Germany. But already in ‘58 her family , a doctor’s family, defected to the West, and she is the only one who ever won the same title, it was a junior pentathlon title, in East Germany as well as the next year for West Germany. So she always had ties, connections, underground, to the Eastern world and knew what was going on. But neither could she reveal her sources. Nor had she something in her hands, you know, that would be court proof, evidence. But clearly then, and I have to read this important part here, it says, “Miss Berendong, a doctor’s daughter, suggested that medical experts should spot check athletes in their home town to look for evidence, etc.” Actually, in the original article, it was gas chromatography combined with subsequently mass spectrometry, random testing of competition at home.
It took 20 years. It took 20 years of fight against that only sensible proposal, and the fighters against that were almost without exception the sports physicians and the medical commission of the IOC and what have you. So the logical thing, and here I can just also quote Jacques Dobbin from the Ben Johnson Canadian investigation who came to the same conclusion. So they were fighting against the only possible measure to be against that. However, for example in 1977 she wrote this article here that resulted in three Saturday night TV shows. This was after her career.
Then she was sued, I was sued for certain statements, again, we won, and this is from the court at the time, a protocol. And this was after the TV show, after the TV show, over a beer, these people tell you everything. But when you say openly, publicly, then they want to erase it. And he had said, for example, this hammer thrower I showed before, he was once a world record holder, “I got myself the prescribed anabolics from Professor Coyle and Professor Kuntber. Professor Coyle is still at the command, head doctor of the German Olympic team. So that shows you that being a drug giving doctor really does not inhibit a career.
So what did one see at the time? So this person, a Czech shot putter–tall, and strong. A few years later, the same person was able to shot put I think 6 meters farther, 5 or 6 meters, and was looking like this. Same person. So, being a coach then (I was coaching discus and also then, of course, some shot put) you were simply exposed to this and there were only two western world athletes. This was Liesel Westermann, until that time discus world record holder for West Germany, and Brigetta, my wife. We saw these changes, we saw the mustaches growing, literally. And we couldn’t ignore that. It was an inhuman thing going on, and practically hidden, masked, by the medical community, by the scientific community, even by the public.
So then, in 1990, as we mentioned, we got material to prove that whole history. What you see here is the title page and you see it’s all classified. Every page is classified Top Secret. The first report about the use of this word I will come to “supporting means” by Professor Bauersfeld. He is the president of the sports medical service of the GDR and these are the copies that existed. And that is the report about the achievements in the Mexico games. And this is the step over the threshold. Until then, this country, the United States (I must simply say this–it’s a fact) was the home of steroid use and abuse. Especially the throwers in California were known, and the dominance of the American throwers in track and field was with no doubt due to the loading with androgenic steroids.
But still, until 1968, there is no documentation and apparently no real successful case of applying androgenic male hormones to females. This is the first case and it has the code number–this is originally from the GDR report–1/68. It is of particular interest to…was particularly disturbing to Brigetta because when she had won the title in the GDR junior, she had bettered the shot put record within the pentathlon, and the then precursor as record holder, Margitta Goebel congratulated her. Now she met that person ten years later at the Olympic Village in Mexico and this was “Cold War” so she said, “Margitta, do you recognize me?” She said, “I don’t speak to you. You are a sports traitor.” This kind of thing.
And she has been one of the most gigantic liars about this. Now, whereas we have enough evidence about this, but I just would like to know, was Margitta among them? And then we were sent, one night, the mailman was ringing and we got this anonymous letter. The only copy left of the early days. “Oh, let me go back to show you the whole secret.”
So on the 28th of July, 1968, this–at that time 27 years old–woman, already a world class athlete (she finished fifth place in the Tokyo games before) was put on drugs. At that time she had the German record of 17½ meters, around that. The action of two tablets continually given, you see here. This was then the world record. From October, the Olympic gold medal with another world record. So that effect, by 2 meters in a short time, tells you all. A woman not on androgenic hormones does not have the slightest chance against a woman using even a low dosage of androgenic hormones.
The next year, then, we have the full on-off record, so they put in here again, now, already you see the advance of the so called “cycles”. And you see how this wasn’t adjusted, and again, she improved dramatically under the influence of those drugs. But you see already the dosage is higher. In 1972, the next Olympic Games, there was already an indoor season in winter and then this was the Olympic outdoor season. You see again the same phenomenon, but, and this is important, the baseline is now not 17½ meters, it’s 18½ meters or even higher. So also, the second clear fact demonstrated by thousands of athlete’s recordings. A female person, and that’s very clear, who once in her life has been on androgenic hormones, will never fall down to the level without androgenic hormones of the same person. She will benefit even 10 years later because she once had achieved, for example, weight work that would have been impossible without. So there is a “remnance,” as the physicians say, in fact, of androgen. The realization, androgenization.
So this is Margitta Goebel at the time, and she is also known, this is why I showed her, you know, she’s not just one former athlete, and I’ve translated this for you. She was a member of the National Olympic Committee for Germany. And she said then, first of all I’m strictly against–it was in 1991, just before the book of my wife appeared, a few weeks before. Since then she has disappeared. Those were the times we heard rumors that the Americans had certain performance enhancing drugs.
So, besides Margitta this is Ilona Slupianek. She also was lying for decades. She won the Olympic gold medal in Moscow and still holds the German record, which is ridiculous. These records are ridiculous these days.
This first study already had the little footnote on page one. It says here, “‘supporting means’ means…” (abbreviated U.N.) “…will be exclusively anabolic steroids.” This is characteristic, not only for the GDR but for the whole clandestine use of such drugs, is the Orwellian trick, from George Orwell. You use a different word, you create a word. They still say in court, “No, we didn’t use doping agents. We had just ‘supporting means’.” And it’s remarkable how the word becomes important in such secret undertakings.
Then we found more than 200 documents of scientific reports. This is about throwing. They’d say, “This is a doctor. This is a double doctor.” So it’s very detailed, so we have documents (you will see this in a second). We also found hand written notebooks of some of the doctors, so this just gives here the performance, what they could do in certain exercises, bench press, etc. I will not go into details.
This is Heike Dowgen or Heike Drechsler, the Olympic winner in the long jump. This is Bessie Kolipik, winner in the high jump in Moscow, then she was in Barcelona. Torsten Voss, world champion in the decathlon. And so forth. So we have the doctors notes, what they were given in what period of time, etc. You can’t imagine, with such documentation, you can only win in courtrooms. So they must be insane even to challenge that.
I want to show you this third line of evidence came from the fact which one only learned in 1994, that all these doctors and coaches in sports have also been like Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Informants of the security police, so the Staci, they were reporting, and one third of their reports had to do with the most Top Secret matter that the Staci had to keep an eye on. That of course is the drug abuse in sports.
Sports for them was very important because it was the cheapest way to win recognition as a state. Remember, in the late ‘60s East Germany was not recognized as a state by most countries in the world. But then, through sports, their blue shirts were seen, their anthem was heard, they were successful. So they decided that sports is a part of foreign affairs politics. So these doctors, including your Dr. Lothar Kipkur here, for swimming, they all were informants and these are their code names so they were acting under code names and this was sometimes very, very detailed. But this is the report of ‘77 of Dr. Hapner, the chief physician of the sports medical service. It just summarizes here, so this is a fact now. It is no longer being doubted because it’s also a fact court proof.
In the GDR, androgenic hormones were used since 1966. That was for males. For women it was since 1968. In particular, in the hands, measures in the preparations for the Olympic Games 1972 and 1976. This was written in 1977. Currently they are used in all Olympic kinds of sports with the exception of sailing, yachting I would say, and gymnastics-female. That then was changed all in 1979. They used androgenic hormones for two intentions: for load, or training load with the, usually short, gymnasts, and also to keep them short because that, what the pediatricians know, if you have a short teenage person, just before, you know, the lengthening growth, you can stop that growth by androgenic hormones.
Then you see here also he was reporting to the government what can be achieved: throwing the shot put 2½ to 4 meters. So for each kind of sports you see the determined increment and for you here, flowing, of course, is particularly important. You see here, for example, in swimming there are also dramatic increases with these “supporting means”.
Already, of course, the damaging side effects are noticed. I can do this in a second. This, then, is the last. That includes the 1988 Seoul Olympics report. Only five copies were made from this. This is the signature of the professor, later the leader of that program. It was at that time already a state’s planned thing, which means part of the governmental budget, the research and the hiding and the measurements, were part of the official budget and everything was Top Secret, but also involved then a number of documents.
This is now the basis (sorry for this picture, but it’s a rare document, and you would love it). The prosecutor has to have the argument that this was governmental criminality in Germany. Otherwise, it couldn’t be punished. So, in 1974, this was on the table of the government, prepared by a special committee, and all copies were destroyed. And they really were. It says here, this guy Abold, the sports leader of the GDR, in the committee of the communist party said, “We shall destroy all copies, nothing should be left,” because it is better if no unnecessary material will remain. One never knows what will happen in the future. But this copy that I found has survived. How come?
But Dr. Hapner had meanwhile, between preparing this and then putting it on the table of the government, met his guidance officer of the Stasi, had reported to him. The guidance officer saw this interesting material that the Stasi should know, copied it, so no real copy has survived, but just this copy of the ministry’s for security. So, it’s very much like if the whole doping in the U.S. would have been organized and hidden by the CIA. Maybe it’s better in East Germany–too many leak points in the CIA perhaps. It was very successful. It was even successful for those who have defected to the west. There are a number of sports physicians who left the GDR, who were then active in western countries. Especially West Germany. They also remain silent. They were still under control from the East. Nobody of them was talking about it.
So we now have a good control. Since the introduction in 1989 of random testing. This is, for example, in shot put women, the top achievement each year went down, as the average of the ten best also went down, and that we can see all clear strength dependent. This is javelin throwing, this is discus throwing. So, it’s very clear that the controls are functioning. You can see it. Lesser is better here, and if you see on the TV screen, the lower left, 400 meter women, the world record, at least in Germany you see this always implanted there, is 47.6, you know, and the best of the world are now running 49 point something. You’ll see how ridiculous these world records in such disciplines are. I don’t know so much about swimming, but clearly in athletics.
So we now have the list of dosage, so how many milligrams for the achievement, the annual dose of milligrams of the oral drug. Daranabolis was the most frequently used androgenic steroid. This was a daily dose, etc. Olympic gold medal, world record which is still active, he just won the silver medal at the European championships, world record holder still, Olympic winner 1988. So it goes on–this is a who’s who in athletics. Petra Felke is still the world record holder in javelin, and so forth.
So all, were on drugs and all were heavily and systematically on drugs. There is no real demonstrable exception. Part of that material was coded, but this is very easy, so they had code numbers here, and if you, however, take this one here, 200 meters, this is a splendid time 21.76, only one person was able to run that that year, and that is of course Marita Kaufster, the world record holder in the 400 meter, so her code number was 42 and then you could go to the drug application doses. Here is her drug, just to give you figures. These women were taking almost exactly as much as the admitted dose of Ben Johnson, an adult male, you know. So the females of the GDR were usually higher dosed with androgenic hormones, male hormones, than the males. I will come to one table where this is shown.
Sometimes the Top Secret writers were probably tired and so they forgot to code. So this is the drug load and these are some tests of Ulf Timmermann, a onetime world record holder and also an Olympic gold medal winner in 1988. I’ll tell you who this is. This is Shult, also a world record holder, Olympic gold medal in 1988, this is a drug load and this is they Olympic winner, this is Martina Hellmann, also an Olympic gold medal winner in 1988. So we have the blank names with free names.
They had theses, doctoral theses whereby primarily concentrating on the correlation of anabolic steroids, when to give how much, in correlation with the training load. So the cycling to correlate this was a prime goal and here, if we could lower this a bit it would be really good because this is, again, they also tried in the ‘80s, they tried to lower the dosage to minimize the damaging side effects because that was then too obvious or they thought they did something good. So, for example, this year is code number W61, which is the code number of Heike Drechsler, long jump Olympic winner, and this is, again, Torsten Voss, world champion in the decathlon. So their male sprinters, for example, got 400 milligrams here in one cycle, and Marita Koch got that year 700 or 900 so the females–Voerkel here got 1600–got much more than the males, which sounds absurd, but of course it was very effective. Voerkel won four Olympic gold medals.
And then, of course, it was important to avoid detection internationally and that’s where German discipline comes in. This is the code numbers for athletes. And this is the end of season. These are certain events in the summer season. And you see the height here is always the drug load, and this is the duration. And you see here? Withdraw? Go on again, withdraw before the major competitions. And that works. So they were very disciplined in following what they called “the concept,” they called it, which was actually determined by the sports doctors and top coaches, federation coaches.
Okay, these correlations are all from a doctoral thesis, believe it or not, and we had a verdict of a county court against us, my wife and I, we should not be allowed–for me that would the end of our society–not be allowed to quote from Top Secret doctoral theses of the former East. And I said, “I will go to the Supreme Court with that. I’ll really give you hell internationally.” Because if they are doctoral theses for which a doctoral title had been given, it has to be public. At the moment, this is a doctoral thesis. It’s in the public domain, whether you hide it or not. So, we had to go to the state court to finally win, so that was not understood, so now these doctoral theses can be seen. Again, Heike Drechsler, and it shows how nicely her potential comes out and is developed under the influence of those drugs.
In my position in this committee, I had to oversee this Institute of the Former Academy of Sciences, and some of the leading people involved, like this Professor Boris Urtl, then wrote me. I asked for the material and they sent it, very nicely, nice Christmas greetings and so forth. The sent me the stuff, but they insisted that I do not copy it. I got an ad hoc committee of five scientists in our cancer center and said this is obviously unethical and when the material is destroyed it will no longer be there and so we copied it. This guy, again, is now the research director of the company that produces all these compounds. He was, and is again, and this is now part of Schering Company, just for information. Without any contribution of that company to the court cases, they still remain silent and do not even report on questions to the judges and the prosecutors.
And here we see that the Academy of Sciences was involved. Several ministries were involved. This is one of these program lists of this state’s planned theme 14.25. So you see, you cannot beat that combination, up to the very top, the president of the Academy of Sciences at the time, Walter Sheila was also involved. He was a toxicologist.
So everyone that was of interest and was maybe asking why, why are such top people interested in being part of this doping organization? The answer is clear: it was so important for the GDR government that they got splendid funding. A normally good researcher, or a real research question, was poorly funded in those countries. It’s like the rocket program of the Soviet Union. You know, this is where they put the money in, and so it was. They held secret meetings. This is one of them. So all professors and doctors, etc. In 1981 this was just a few weeks after it had become clear that the IOC would now also test for testosterone by determining the testosterone to ap-testosterone ratio. So they got the best steroid scientists together and had this Urtl–Boris Urtl called himself a brainstorming crisis manager in that meeting. So they were talking about this and the protocol of that reserve. For example, and I’m mentioning this compound; this compound is not popular here in the States apparently. This is what Randy Bonds was discovered with. This was their program for the next decade to come. So you don’t use testosterone, you apply the immediate biochemical precursor to testosterone. So that program here is of very great importance for doping controls, etc.
So they already were developing next generation strategies to beat those tests. And if you see here, in 1983, they had one that’s called , which means “ratio research.” Sounds funny. But it’s that research done to beat the testosterone: aptestosterone ratio. Again, you find androstenedione, which now seems to be popular in this country. So they were more or less foreseeing and developing strategies. Also the hydro-testosterone that was found with the Chinese. All that you can read already in the early 18 documents of the scientists of the GDR. These were not dumb people. They were very good steroid biochemists of traditionally, you know, German chemical/chemistry quality.
Helga Pfeiffer was responsible for that program. Her assistant, Baumgart, who applied it to the minus. Baumgart is still a coach in West Germany now, and hasn’t been touched yet by the police. You will see a document of what he did in a few seconds. For example then, here Baumgart and Richter some of you may know him, and here, Dr. Tauge, Dr. Ditka, etc. So they made these teams, the development team and the application team, so to say, in high performance sports. And this went through all kinds of sports.
And also then, this was the last important ingredient. This is a document from the headquarters of the ministry for security, the Stasi, and you find here they were overlooking, continually, the research institutions involved in this as well as each individual who ever had to do with these compounds. So they were under permanent security control.
Now this is a summary of the drugs that have been used. If you are missing, I will come to this now. I know the American press was surprised about androstenedione, you know, they had it in an oral application. They had it in injectables, and also–and Urtl was particularly proud of this–as a nasal spray. The idea was not only to have it for muscle development, but also, and this is now very much vindicated by the whole concept of neuro-steroids, it has been found only recently that neural cells, or nerve cells, do have testosterone receptors. And they were absolutely convinced, and actually they had practical evidence that it is important that you don’t go into a gap, that you maintain the saturation, so to say, of your androgen receptors on your nerve cells, making you aggressive, making you go. And this is why they had in swimming, and this has now come out in the courtroom, this last week. They had, three to two hours before the finals, each final, they were injected 10 milligrams–they called it a refreshment injection–10 milligrams of testosterone in their hotel room. So, and this is now proven and I will also show you these documents. So, testosterone or androgenic hormones had two roles. One was the muscle development and the training load, and the other was the psychotropic action as the endocrinology.
This is the home brand, the so-called “blue tablets.” This is how they look. And already known, and I’ll just tell you this, the side effects, it was known, because some doctors kind of didn’t know it was here. So here it is: libido increase, acne, what have you, deepening of the voice. Of course it was known! It was known in the medical literature since the early 1960s.
And this is also important, the signature here, this Professor Erme here, from another academy institute. He came to Heidelberg, to my office, and said, “I know you are interested in this relationship of our research and we have made this new peptide” ‘Substance B’ he had. We synthesized them, but I did not know what it was for.” So he played innocent. Very charming man. One week later, I found this document, and his name is down here in the signature, believe it. He also wanted to sue me then, when my wife published this letter. He made, actually, the proposal to use it in sports. That was his brilliant idea to have this newer peptide being used for performance enhancement. So these professors are lying and they are lying, apparently, until their grave.
This is the program for the 1990s, which they already developed, if the GDR would not have collapsed. So we have all these scientific institutes here as well. But not only that, what they also used whenever they could use it–I will show you some examples from swimming as well–classical stimulant drugs, as well. So this is what you call in this country “speed” or “crystal” That is methamphetamine. This was the SC Dynamo soccer team, you know. As you see, most of them are loaded with amphetamines on top of everything else. Of course, the weightlifters–and there are some severe cases today. This guy is now in a wheelchair. He was a silver medal winner in Montreal, and they of course had loads dramatically, you know. 11,000 milligrams of T; they were injected with human hormone with testosterone esters, etc. So they were just loaded.
But this guy here is the current national weight lifting coach of Germany. So I will just skip that and just tell you what’s on it. In each kind of sport there was a strict hierarchy. The hierarchy was the coach, the federation coach, made the proposals–who should be in the cadre, who should be given drugs. And that went then up as an application and it was then approved or not by the medical service of the state, and then went down together with the pills. Same came to Berlin with a suitcase to collect the pills even, and it was then hierarchically distributed to each club finally, and the club coach then was the person handing this out. So they had an absolutely national hierarchic pyramid system for this.
This is a graduate student of Donnick, in West Germany. And they of course never would, even for research, apply testosterone to women. That’s not ethically acceptable. But not so in the East. They used it all the time for research as well as in sports. So we have now the women’s loadings here. Annual. This is from the book of my wife. So 3,678–it is twice the Ben Johnson doses. A woman, a shot putter, a discus thrower, and so forth–Marita Koch, still world record holder is also in that top list of loading–and this is, for example, the top ranking. She was, I think, silver medal winner in the world championships in 1987. This is Machinsky, the discus thrower. If you would note their performances in the weight room, you would not believe that. I know now, and especially from Dynamo, because I helped some of them in the court cases. I actually gave them lawyers. So they were finally talking freely. They could do with fixed hip, just bench press, 160 kilograms. That must be I don’t know how many pounds–that must be 360 or so pounds. They could do squats, deep squats, deep squats with 190 or 200. I talk about repetitions of 5 to 8. And even the swimmers are just–anticipate this, you will see this. 15 year old swimmers, like Carola Nitschke, told myself and my son–my son is a discus thrower, he was clearly impressed–15 year old swimmers did series, usually five or six series of five or six repetitions each with 100 kilograms. So they had a weight load, weight work, that you simply cannot achieve without doping. And you see this in the physique. They were immensely strong.
However, the chief doctor responsible for that–and that now comes in this dualism, this is what I call professional psychophremia–all these doctors disapproved, disliked, actually found this a horror that this is applied, especially to women. Although they did it! Day by day. So he, for example, was reporting here to the state security, to the Minister of Security. Again and again there is irresponsible use of testosterone for women even in meetings where it is not so important. For example, in the GDR, the local championships, this top shot putter, Slupianek, you have seen her, and this other woman was a long jumper, were just loaded with testosterone, you know. He even used disgust in his language.
Important, however, was that Ilona Slupianek was the only ever found in a doping control system because they used the wrong drug. So then there’s this governmental order, “From now on, every athlete has to undergo a departure control.” So since then, really, no athlete could leave the country, ever, without having his or her urine tested before. And this has sometimes, and we know this now from some swimming events, resulted in exclusions in the last minute. Even, they got them out of the airplane, already waiting on the airfield. And there are a number of examples, and I will come to one in a few seconds.
Classically, however, was this application scheme. So the bars here indicate the use of the oral synthetic steroid. These arrows here you’ll see at testosterone propionate show it as a chain that is a short lived ester of testosterone. And this is the major event. The immediate period before a major event. So they kept this with these testosterone injections for at least one or two weeks. And here, for example, you see this pattern for the jumpers, this again is Heike Dreschler. So sometimes they had their meetings under the influence of the full drug use. The German record in the long jump is one of those.
Already in 1988, these three guys here, Klaus Nietze…Klause Nietze were part of the medical commission of the IOC, and the same guys that developed the strategies were on the other, sitting also with the other hat in the control committees of the IOC. Hapner, as well, and also he was in the IAAF in track and field very strong, and Hecker was a research director. They had developed the means to bypass the testosterone: ap-testosterone ratio and they were not fearing this at the time. So they determined for each athlete, injection here, how long can you then have this deviation of the ratio of testosterone to ap-testosterone? When is it below six again? So they had this for each individual athlete, so I will show you a document when Christine Arthur at one time was still high in the T-E ratio. They couldn’t let her leave because they knew when there will be the heat for her swimming event in the European championships she will already be , and predicted will be below 6.
Also then you see this here, they had, and I have in the installation here. Dr. Reidl was the chief doctor of the athletics of the track and field team, they had that ap-testosterone, which is biologically useless, it does not react with any biological receptor, it’s just produced in the body without sense. Now, they made testosterone, the pharm Company, just for that purpose. So what they did, they co-injected testosterone with ap-testosterone so they determined they had enough testosterone but also they loaded ap-testosterone to beat, so to say, that kind of control.
And here, for example, Karen Anke, three times gold medal winner in the winter Olympics in the ice skating, was loaded with that, and this has been blackened by the authorities. I shall not show you this, I’ll tell you what is there. Because the virilization is already so strong, because when they did this, they of course had the high load of testosterone, the sheer androgen in the body, so the doctor disapproved of that. And this is a black market for ap-testosterone. Let me be brief on that and say that they had already, in the 1983, since then, this strategy to beat the testosterone test by co-injection with ap-testosterone and they did it systematically and, seeing the that it worked they did it. This is why I had this slide here. So they did it. Currently, you are testing this with female swimmers and rowers. So, in swimming, since 1984, they did it systematically.
So, here are documents showing you the really ruthless criminal event that was of the sports. This is, again, the Staci report by Dr. Hapner, he says, “There is a swimming competition in the U.S.” They had apparently been in national meetings against the U.S., traveling, etc. They still have to inject immediately before the competition testosterone and he, Hapner, saw himself forced to allow that because otherwise the planned achievements, the performances, would not be guaranteed. So that tells you that they did this almost in every meeting in addition to the already use of androgenic hormones they were then injecting until the day. And then, for example, the age was different. In rowing, female rowing, it started with 15 years, in weightlifting with 17–but higher dosage then, and this is cross country skiing, etc. And they said also, here, “Without their knowing…” and it should be added “…in beverages or in mixtures with vitamin injections.” So, they were lying not only of course to the young athletes, but also to their parents.
This is from swimming, a report to the government. And you see here, the age was between 14 and 15 years, and they were determining here how in swimming can one start, it was because of the variant of the first application. It’s almost like the loss of virginity there. So this is a report from there how much they gave. So you can see, systematically throughout the country, they were giving, most of the time, 10 milligrams to a 14 year old girl daily in these cycles. And also again this tells you this was already since 1975 here is the report that, again, they were using the term “vitamin” treatments and “vitamin” injections for that.
This is Reik Handelmann, a swimmer who was twice champion in the European championships, and he is one of the few who are very outspoken and he has for the court given his signature that neither he nor his parents were ever informed or have given their consent to. This of course is important for the judges in these days.
Almost a movie scenario was the doctors seeing this damaging side effects in the girls, particularly in swimming. Meeting the politicians like Munford Abold. And here Hapner says, “I was then asking, especially the swimmers, how can one have the successes without ‘supporting means’?” Answer of comrade Abold, “None.” Silence. High performance silence. And so he was then asking further, “They are still very young female swimmers. What shall we do with them?” Again, silence. And then, he said, “At least,” he proposed, “I suggested, as I did in the past, to him my wish to use his influence on press and TV to arrange that female athletes with particularly deepened voices are not in the forefront in interviews.” And then Abold was laughing, “What are you telling here? This is illogical. You give the anabolic steroids and I shall keep them away from the interviews.” So this is the kind of discussions which they had in their political circles.
Also then, here, and that shows you “The End.” And if you have believed so far in doping controls by IOC or whatever controllers, you will be shocked. If everything failed, if they were too risky, or had been drugs that cut it loose, this was still working. This was a weightlifting international competition. So Abold, the president, suggested, of the sport, that he have dinner with the international representatives and over dinner arranged that the transportation to the doping control laboratory is by their people. So during the transportation then he should break the seals and exchange the urine samples of the GDR weight lifters with clean urine, this would be necessary, etc. And a few days later, he reported to the state security according…for GDR athletes which had to undergo doping control, and would they be positive, their urine samples were through the informant which was him, Dr. Hapner, who had exchanged and therefore negative results were achieved.
So, and we now also know from one other informant…you see, they didn’t have one informant. This was the chief doctor informant. They also had the weight lifting doctor Lathan, informant. So they were not trusting anyone. So they had several informing about the same event. So Lathan told who gave the urine. It was the chief weight lifting coach and it was doctor Hapner himself. So these guys who had to control were peeing themselves, exchanging the urine, and then happy and reported to the International Committee that there were no positives.
And of course you may think this was communist era. This has been one incentive to show that communism is superior. But nationalism is still existing. That incentive is still there. And money, the biggest incentive on this planet, is also still there. So this is something that still could be done if people want to do it and are corrupt enough.
So then also at philosophers, this philosopher is now celebrating his emeritus procedure. You can read it yourself. Very funny philosophy, because his goal agrees, you know, who benefits from it, so if all benefit from it then this is legal and humane.
So we can summarize then, in the early 1980s, with respect to anabolics, this is the official standpoint, the standpoint remains that we declare to the outside world that the athletes of the GDR don’t use such things. However, currently, each year 2000 athletes are involved in this, including alone in track and field 300. So each year 2000 athletes were added to the system, practically, as long as their career was running.
Before I switch to the swimming hard data, I just want to mention one thing. This is here. And I just give this Dr. Bernisch-Umhalla as one representative. There were, yes there were, doctors, physicians, who have refused, who did not participate. Who took disadvantages in the courtroom now there was a doctor Gunter Fehling, in the TSC Club Berlin–this was found only through the prosecutor–who said, “I will not inject a young girl with testosterone. Never!” So she was then transplanted from high performance sports to normal volunteer sports. Worker sports as they called it. She was of course under observation from there on as a bearer of the know-how by the Staci, but she could act as a doctor still.
These people do not wish to admit this publicly today in Germany. None of them. Because in the existing Germany, to have been against this in the past is still considered traitor. Very much like World War II. In retrospect, still a traitor against the national goal. So they will not appear. This Dr. Bernish, she was asked whether she would appear on TV in a show, because I suggested to the TV company it would be nice to reflect that system by those who have said no. They’re ethically heroes. None of them. They said, “We have to live here, as doctors, in the Eastern states, and we still will be considered as traitors against the system.”
The next picture you will see, the person I mentioned initially, Christiane Knacke, She is 1 meter 64. How much is this in feet? So she is very short. And she also is–was before and is now–a very slender, thin person. You wouldn’t believe this if you see these people now and then, and also now in the court room, so. This was she at the age of 15 in the competition against the United States in Berlin, 1997, August, when she was the first woman to have the 100 meter butterfly below a minute. So it was 0:59.78. 15 years old, and this is not at all her physique–you wouldn’t recognize the person. As I said, she’s rather thin and small. Now at this meeting, again I go back, when she recognized that she had beaten the one minute barrier, and saw this, she was not only on androgenic hormones, a 15 year old, she did not know, but was, and this has only come out now through the court, in that event, almost all of them were as well on for every team. GDR, USA, they were all the same. So they were all on methamphetamines. So this was one of the non-controlled national competition meetings and so they were on real speed, so, in addition to androgenic hormones, and that was the case many times in many of the events, competitions against the USA.
This is from a 15 or 16 year old maiden notebook. It’s a, of course, intimacy secret, a young girl, and she gave it to my wife and allows me to show this. This was the moment in 1978 when she learned that she has failed the departure test. She was positive, and I found last week, the week before this week, I found finally the chemist who testified in court and told him yes, it was a compound that only can be injected. And that was the reason why now the injectables are in the sentencing of the court, which is important for German law. Notice she says, “I’m still full in stuff…” They knew they had something but they did not know what it was. She had just in the training session she had 0:59.7 hand clocked. Trimmer was a swimmer, a famous swimmer as well and afterward, both are still positive so they could not participate in the world championship. This is Andrea Pollack at the time. Also, you’ll see the strong physique and these are three of that category at the time. “The Unbeatable National Team.”
And this now the list of those on drugs, you know. This is the official list of the research committee and this is a who’s who. So it’s Krauser, Witt, Talber, Tryber, Pollack, Knacke, Menschuk, Trimmer, Bitterschneider, on it goes, still and so forth. So, what I mean is, the national team was on such drugs.
This is the handwriting of Dr. Kipka, and this is his joint report with Dr. Bienus, who now has been sentenced in the court. This is about the Olympic years 1979-1980 and the Olympic games in Moscow, and he had left that. That was only found in 1996 in his garage. So the police then did a raid on my suggestion and I said, scientists and doctors always, you know, they don’t throw away such things. So in 1996 they still found his records. The transcript from the police. Now I can just show you what was in the court room for the sentencing. This is his handwritten list of injections, and so this is injectables. This is his so-called “bridging therapy” they called it, before the event. So let me just show you this in a little blow up. So again, this is the who is who: Schneider, Talber, Goviniga, Pollack, etc., Knacke. So they had exactly, more or less exactly the Ben Johnson dosage as young girls. So this is a continuing of that list. So, the higher dose for young females.
This is a transcript where they listed the contraceptive which they used, the club, and of course, the total dosage. Listed here for each year. Rica Reinisch, here as well Tryber, and so forth. So, we have these data now. This is also for males, so they also exist for males. They are not in the courtroom because the damage after so many years, because of the statute of limitation for drug violations, they can only be prosecuted or indicted for bodily violation and with males it is much more difficult to demonstrate. So this is, again, a transcript from the police from such documents and this is handwritten from Dr. Beinus. And you see this point here, this is immediately injected before the main competition, 10 milligrams for “refreshment.” So this is what I was mentioning they always use. Still immediately before the competition. These are they cycles that they were given, so orals as well as the injectables, so testosterone, depo, it’s all there, and it is court proof. Now you cannot have any better documents. These directly come out–you see this here?–from the court room.
Some people in West Germany have known this before, like Judge Ham Byer, it was reported to him in camera, through a committee, in 1991. But they did neither bring this to the public, they did not bring this to the knowledge of the prosecutor, nor to the knowledge of the victims. Because to them it is, as one knows now, maybe, and often is, from medical consequences. They remained silent because they wanted the East German coaches to be in office and so they kept this data.
Now this is from 1985, again, a competition in the U.S.A. and you see here females used 10 to 15 milligrams per day, males 20 to 25, and for the females you see Ute Goviniga, Astrid Strauss, Karen Koenig, Ota Meineka, and here the men, Reuter, Lodziewski, and so forth. So, you can…this is perhaps for you the most interesting document. This is one of the rare…I’ve got a few more, when I traveled here I got a few more from the chemist who now do this at departure control.
Departure control was given the signature of Dr. Klausen, it’s an IOC approved control laboratory, to Dr. Hapner from his sports medical service and four were still positive at the moment of departure with elevated testosterone: ap-testosterone. Quite high, actually. For example, Christine Otto has 17, Eike Frederich 8.8, Junger, Danela Junger 12, and Dagmar Hajia 10. So there were still…I mean this would have been a dopey control test, they would have been suspended or banned for–I don’t know what in the swimming, is the case–two years or so. But they knew these stars would be down on the course three days later, so they could not risk to let them out to as was the European championships.
So this Dr. Beinus, this is his lawyer in front of the court room in Berlin. He was also sentenced.
Now the argument was, which of course is a false argument, “We didn’t know about this damaging side of this. It’s only now we know this.” This of course is deadly wrong. And it can be best demonstrated because the doctors recorded this themselves. This is from the doctoral thesis of Dr. Reidl. He became a professor for that. And he has listed the frequency as well as the kind of damages, so: hirsutism and acne, 10% libido, dysmenorrhea, this is the lack of menstruation; etc. So they were giving the drug–funny doctors, I mean, bizarre doctors–and then recording the damaging side effects. Like, it would not be allowed in Germany to do this with Guinea pigs, because you have to write an application for animal protection. But they could do it, and maybe still some do it, with humans.
Now this is Martina Belosia at the Olympic games, and I just show you this to show again the schizophrenia of those doctors. Dr. Hapner had to look over her. She was a sprinter, she was the world record holder at the time in the sprint relay, 4 x 100 meter, running. And now she was his patient. She had some infection, intestinal infection. Now he saw her with different eyes, and he describes here that her hair was growing from the upper hamstring up until the umbilical cord, etc., so he was shocked by the hirsutism. She, again, had been told it was vitamin tablets that the coach gave her, and she already had decided to stop her career, despite she was an Olympic team member already at the age of 19. But, and so you see some of the system. She was in one of these privileged schools, and they told her at the school, “When you stop your sports activities, you’re out. You will not be allowed to graduate here.” So these were the forces they had to keep them.
And then Hapner was very proud, in this particular case, because he was so shocked to arrange that she could, nevertheless, at least finish school. So he knew, and they knew, about the virilization. It’s all listed here and I show you this particular slide only to read this, because you have to show the document–I know that you’re unable to read German, but it’s so bizarre. They were afraid that young girls would get pregnant, because androgenic hormones act on the fetus with very bizarre bisexual developments sometimes. So they forced the young girls at the same time to take contraceptives, even if they had no real reason for that at the age of 14 or so. So then, they had the double load with steroids, for the liver, you will see the consequences in a few seconds. And then, however, if, nevertheless a girl or a young lady got pregnant under
the influence of androgenic hormones, in each case an abortion was ordered, governmentally ordered. So that you just see the consequences of thinking and application, in this case.
Now what records do we have from this? Practically all of what has come out in the courtroom has been in the medical literature somewhere before, but not just with names and not with athletes. So this is the steroid acne, and this is from the back side, the classic form, which is not a normal juvenile acne.
This canoer here, a young canoer, was found by a doctor in the University Clinic because she had a growth, a hepatoma growth, amenorrhea. She actually is from a canoe club–and I should not mention this unless you understand part of that–where one of the relatives of my wife, who remained…a part of the family who remained in the East. She also was a canoer, she also at the age of 16 had to go through gynecological treatments, and she had to sign…her mother only learned that after unification, and said, “Why, Kirsten?” You heard her on 60 Minutes but her face was clouded so you couldn’t recognize her. “Why did you never tell us, your parents, your mother?” And she said, “Oh, Mama, I had to sign that I wouldn’t talk to you.” She even was not allowed then, to come back to the waterside where they had the canoes or the exercise and she was not allowed to talk to her teammates at the time, because they shouldn’t learn about the damaging side effects with her. So this was one such case where this was found out by University Hospital. But these are the same effects as in the west as is from the University of Munich, and as for your Western results, in West Germany, this is a javelin thrower, same thing. Classic steroid acne, and I know that are many body builders in this country, and throwers, have experienced the same thing.
This is from Drs. Scott and Scott, who are the dermatologists of the American National Team, and they have listed here what they have observed with American athletes. That was in the 1980s, and this is one of the reasons why Dr. Voy, Robert Voy, then gave up and has written his book. As a doctor you simply cannot stand that if you have any ethical background.
These are reports, anonymous patient reports…okay, where they have listed this for…with American women, same things. By the way, including increased aggressiveness as a psychotropic one, and again, here. So we knew all that, also from Western athletes, but we just couldn’t associate a specific side effect with a famous sports name. This guy, Schmidt, who was given this as a minor, he then developed this gynecomastopathy. You see this here. He was very clever. He had his girlfriend photographing him with a beard, so he has now a demonstration for the court about the effects, you know, at the time. These signs were then removed by full surgery, and you will see this. So this was home front. This is what you call in the body builder language in this country “bitch tits.” This is a…it’s under surgery here, as well. I don’t know about swimmers, so you see, if you know the scars, so this is a frequent, ongoing…
And here there’s twelve weight lifters who were operated on in the cancer hospital and the liver… This is liver…that the liver
of one shot putter, I just had mentioned had many severe liver…where liver biopsy was necessary.
And this guy here, Thomas Muenser–best friend, by the way, of Arnold Schwarzeneger, comes from a neighboring village–he came back here from the so-called “Arnold Classics” in Cleveland, Ohio. He didn’t feel very well in Munich, went to a doctor, then to University Hospital, and he was…the next day, he was dead. So, I know the forensic medicine autopsy results, and the result is he had this hepatoma, so called “benign liver tumor” with a rupture, internal bleeding, this is what he died from, and that result will be published soon, of course without his name.
Two of the three body builders dead in Munich, on the table of the forensic medicine people there had this kind of liver tumor. That also Meineka, as now Dr. Heikrod has now confessed as the first female swimmer in the court room.
This is another dead body builder with inflated…here…who has suffered from–again a frequent effect–the enlargement of the heart. Death cases with anabolic steroids of cardiomyopathy… And therefore, for this one, this one was…for some reason he didn’t feel very well before. So a clinical from him. So you see his cholesterol, and you know this from the advertisement “HDL is the good, LDL is the bad” cholesterol fraction and you see that this is the reference, he was down to practically zero. And that one’s up, twofold. So that is known from the literature, but what is not known, but what is an inevitable consequence if you sometimes have severe…. of that. Let me just go over that.
This is another…this is the shot putter Heide Krieger, who was given this as a minor, she was a European champion, shot put beyond 21 meters, so absolute world class. And she looked, she looked like a tall but nice girl. And here she is writing, you know, so…female. You see the secondary organs here, so, breasts, etc. She was given extremely high levels as a shot putter, as I mentioned before. There she is now. She is a transsexual, she noticed that something was going on with her, and as it…transsexuals are given, of course, you have to be predisposed, not every female reacts that way. But what you do with a person who wants to change sexual appearance, she gets, by law, injected in Germany for one year with testosterone esters to accommodate in the new sex, so to say. And only then, she can be operated, etc., or he can be operated, etc. But with her, not knowing. I mean, she had been treated with androgenic hormones for many years before and that has then, of course, resulted in this change and he will also be an important witness to the court. And Heide Kreiger wants to dedicate his gold medal, when he was a she, for a prize given every year for the best contribution to girls sports, because he says he somehow feels that this should never happen again and he wants that this is given as a prize and should be memorized what has been done to generations of young girls.
And then, of course, is known, from transsexuals, because when they operated their uteri and their ovaries can be studied histologically and so one knows what happens and polycystic ovarian syndrome, cysts in the ovary, is also found now in some of the swimmers. I cannot give you the names because they do not want that this is publicly known in the Berlin court case.
Now quickly, and to the end. You may think, “Oh, these communists. How hard! We are the better.” No. The reasons may be different, but the abuse mentality made you the same. He may be the next chancellor in Germany, he has been at the time, he was also the Minister for Internal Affairs. And this is quoted from a secret session of the parliament, committee of the parliament. This guy’s totally insane here, you know. This is what they sometimes dream, and this is Ham Byer. He says, “The only…” this is, he said publicly! “The only what I can accuse the GDR of is that they used every possibilities with respect to drugs…” this was about drugs and minors, “…what lied to us and did as if this were not so.” So he does not…is not disgusted by the use of androgenic hormones in females, he just wanted to do it himself. And this was an interview which he did not approve in the last minute. It was already printed, so that what would you do now with Franziska Fermande from 1992? He was then running for president…presidency of the National Olympic Committee, so he did not give the final approval. Now, according…she has lost to the Chinese. Now, according to the GDR plans, she would now, at 14 years old, she would be initiated by injection with androgenic hormones, so what do you think? Byer. Not only in sports, but generally it is so, that the fate of children and minors, up to a certain grade of maturity, is determined by the parents. That must also be right for doping. Which means, when parents approve, you can do this with young females. So that’s, for me, a horrendous statement. I made this public and then he sued me and lost.
So this is…which means the mentality, if you hear them now, this is not what they were thinking really until recently. They were envious of the GDR, that they had the possibility to use these young objects, as they called them, you know, and come home with medals, and they were hindered by some ethical considerations.
Now initially, shot putter Claudia Losch was mentioned, as , for she then won the gold medal when she was eighteen years old, and looked like this. A few years later, (she’s West Germany, okay) looked like this. And always, and you are here, a Coaches’ Association, I must say, in all cases it’s not some…in the first order, the doctor. It’s the coach behind it, the coach is the person, the father figure, so to say. And the coach is this guy here, Christian Goerman, and he now can be called a doping drug dealer. He was…and he actually was cashing a lot from those young girls. His only problem was that one of the shot putters, Petra Leidinger, decided after graduation from high school to study pharmacy. Then she noticed what funny stuff is this she had. That was the danger of the pharmacy student. So she then gave this to analysis and found this out, etc., etc., and this…how it came… But already, he was under the statutes of limitations. So the poor GDR coaches, they cannot be prosecuted still by …nor the West Germans, because they have only five years.
This was one of the self-made pills that he distributed, this guy. Also, in Heidelberg, University Clinic, shot putter, analysis from the endocrinology, testosterone it says here, “High performance athlete after anabolic usage.” So, anabolics usage. This is Carmen Conya, German champion in the shot put at the time. So this is his loading, and his plan, it says “anabolic strong stranozilol.” So the Ben Johnson stuff, oenstol. So this guy denied, and I said initially, lying is the most frequent and most severe side effect. He denied even in front of a judge, and he was finally sentenced to nine months of prison for perjury, just to show how persistent this lying.
Dr. Klemper, Professor Klemper, has written here, this is a German champion, he was 6th in the Los Angeles games in discus throwing, he sent all this stuff to Brigetta, my wife. He said, “I want to get rid of this whole…”
This is particularly liked, dianabol, signed by the professor, free. You can fill it in yourself. And this is stronger, which is stanozilol, signed by his assistant doctor, again for him, and this is the most liked. You can fill everything here. That’s the signature, you know. So the prescription that he’d use, and this is from a police interrogation from the death case of Peter Dressel.
I can summarize, however, not only West Germany has had its small groups of drug abuse for doping in sports, but also other countries, just minors. You have also one case, Fosse, in this country. You have individual cases here, spread around. This is just cases for nandrolol, an injectable, so that means somebody must have injected this.
And just to finish off and that you are not too proud of your own nation and your achievements, I show you here from the attachments of a hearing of the senate of justice, justifying the drug experience, senator of justice. This is a sprinter, bronze medal winner in the 100 meter in the world championships, 1983, Diane Williams. She was treated by Robert Kerr, the guy, the doctor who has confessed that he had given anabolic steroids to 20 U.S. medal winners of the Los Angeles games, in court. Right? He has confessed that. So, he had to give, on her request, to Judge… Senator Byden, he had to give his documents on her. And this is his handwritten stuff. So he…anabolic steroids now questioned, but also in 1983, HAG, human , her coach wants her to have HCG. STH, which is human growth hormone, somatrotophic hormone. In 1983 already, program. So they were not only having androgenic steroids, they already at the time had…a whole lot of the U.S. women’s team had the growth hormone as well as , and this is now… I want to read it to you because of . This is the confession of Diane Williams in the official Senate hearing, and I ask myself and ask you, why not in this country has this resulted in a court case? Can somebody explain to me, Diane Williams says, “One month past, Chuck Debus…” (her coach) “…gave me unmarked white plastic bottle. This is what it is and then 50 pills…” etc., etc. He instructed her how much to take. And then… This is directly, by the way, from the publication of the Senate hearing. “Immediately I developed acne and pigmentation on my face. I was a woman who suddenly became strong like a man. At the same time I was really concerned because I did see changes, legitimate changes, occurring in my body.” So okay. And Anna Varhey, she got… So finally, let me just go to the dianabol as well. “After an eight week period of steroid use…” this is Californian sprinter “…use, began to experience more serious side effects. March 1983, no menstrual period…” is amenorrhea “…and certain masculine features appeared like a mustache and fuzz on the chin. My clitoris started to grow to embarrassing proportions.” At that moment, witness crying, the session had to be interrupted. Chairman is Joseph Byden. Then she continued with even more, “My vocal cords lengthened to a deeper voice, a masculine of hair growth appeared, steroids affected my sexual behavior. In many cases I was a nymphomaniac…” and I slipped over that. I sometimes feel inhibited to talk about this, but I will do it now, because Diane Williams has confessed it. One of the consistent, very frequent side effects of androgenic hormones in mammals, not only humans, our sexual drive is determined by male hormones, also in the female. So they go crazy, you know, without their will. They are really driven. And she confessed that she had exactly that one. Then Dr. Kerr gave her this HCG, in the right hip, injected her, and this one she had to pay $100 a week, then she had itching, sore mouth, higher sex drive, depression, and vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain. And then clots of blood. The chairman, Joseph Byden, “I realize it is very hard for you,” because she stopped speaking, etc.
Now, is there somebody who can explain that, all the lawyers here, this has not resulted in the same thing as in Germany? Such a confession should result in a prosecution for bodily harm because this is bodily harm. And as you all know in this country, high school epidemiology tells you how widespread these were a couple of years ago, and again, you have in your country a law that would allow–this is from the steroid act–would allow you to prosecute this, at least for a drug violation. Also in sports circles, and you have already in 1990 included Human Growth Hormone in the text of your American shown to us recently in the Tour de France, is a good role. If the police does its job according to the law, which also is existing in this country, then at least there shouldn’t be any coaches who distribute this because a coach who distributes that to an athlete is also, according to American law, this is a violation and he can be punished as now the Germans are punished, and swimming coaches as well, altogether there will be more than 100. This is now the figure given by the general prosecutor’s office. More than 100 court cases. About 12 in swimming, going up to the highest echelon, which is the political and the federation level, and of course, also in other kinds of sports.
So the German example may be one of the worst scenarios by its Germanic, Teutonic organization and efficiency, but also now by the efficiency of the court, clean up, give a good example to other nations as well. And if this is effective, then I could be happy. But I will not finish, without my…this is about…yah, I should say this as well…
One ingredient…this is in an advertisement about Human Growth Hormone. Now here it says “Turn us in…” and this is ridiculous! In this whole country you’re calling to FDA offices there are not even 8,000 cases of pituitary dwarfism. That would not make the, what is it, hundred millions of dollars every year. It’s obvious that growth hormone is used for all kinds of activities than just for drug laws. I wonder how when you consider what the French syndrome or the few genetic problem cases. police did just in the Tour de France, why the American agents, DEA and FBI, are not more active if it comes closer to the sports. And one explanation for this is that, I’m now quoting undercover agents of the FBI in body builder circles have said, “If you come too close from San Diego to Los Angeles, you come to certain doctors who give the stuff to movie stars.” For example, your… what is it? The beach series, what’s the name? Baywatch? David Hasselhoff, who is known in Germany more as a singer, he was one of the witnesses in such a case in the federal court in Los Angeles. So, and then, apparently the prosecutors are instructed not to pursue this further. So that much on the American judicial system.
Steroids statistical summary for roughly one year, and you’ll see how much at least have been caught, the distribution, etc. This is material from the FBI statistics and this is now interesting. And that’s the biggest weapon I think they American system would have–you are entitled to confiscate everything that you find in conjunction with such a trafficking drug distribution system. So at least they collected 32 vehicles, they even got to your real estate, so they made $1.5 million, simply from confiscations for the state. So at least that may also be a good source of earnings.
And also in your country, you have a record. Few Americans know this. This is a Dr. Pursick–there are many doctors, Jaycott. You have doctors already in prison…the author of the book “The Steroid Handbook”…”Underground Steroid Handbook,” Dinder Schoen, had to serve one year in prison. So you can… This again is Dr. Jaycott with David Hasselhoff….you can. You have the material in you law. You have the police. And I wonder how–this is really a wonder to me–how the American sport system is somehow excluded from that. You sometimes find the body building scenario, only in some off competition controls positives are found. And I think that what the French police have now, the advertisement here is for parents. It says, “We have the system,” and you have the choice. And I know that in this country they want to make the football team at high school, then the parents ask for a growth hormone treatment, just to be a bit taller and stronger. Now this already is the beginning of the same thinking, even from parents. To use an individual as an object, and not, so to say, the person in his or her own right.
And then also this is the final question I will translate. This was in 1992. This writer of the famous Zurich title in Switzerland, he was upset about this discussion wherever there is a world record people start talking “may be some drug involved.” And I think this is the biggest achievement. Everybody’s going, “what did you achieve?” The virus of knowledge, of know-how, is now in the brains of the people as long as mankind will exist. You know what you can do with drugs, so there will always be doubt. And for a scientist, doubt is a usual and very healthy and variable thing. Now he said, “Maybe the whole doping problem will resolve by itself through the fatigue with the excited, ethical people.” So he means that people like me and some of you, you know will at what time, retired, and give up. And I can just ask you in your fight not to give up. It’s really the last fight at OK Corral, and you have to face in this fight high ranking members in the political arena and also in the IOC and other arenas who wouldn’t say it publicly, but who would be willing again, as they have been for decades to tolerate drugs in the background.
Thank you very much.