Difference Between Techniques for Short Course and Long Course Breastroke by Sergio Lopez, Bolles School Sharks (2014)


Hello, can you hear me; yes all right awesome again, I’m thankful to be here. I think, I’m going to talk, when they asked me about what I wanted to talk I thought about this topic: the difference between techniques of short course and long course breaststroke. And these are my thoughts. What I — what I’ve seen in the years that I coached and also I guess with my experiences as an old breaststroker.

You know, most of the base of it, it’s probably, and I have to attribute everything to my latest coach, Jozsef Nagy, who is well known for being the inventor of the wave breaststroke. You know, first of all for whoever doesn’t know, I was born in Spain, I wasn’t a very good swimmer growing up and I — at the age of 20, I was a bronze medalist in the 200 breaststroke in the ’88 Olympics. And 1992, in my home town, I got the worst place that you can get in the Olympics, that’s fourth. You know, and now I don’t think that way, but at that moment getting fourth in your hometown, in the pool that you swam, because I used to swim in that pool. They fixed it a little bit, but it was very, it was a defining moment in my life, put it that way.

But I just swam professionally until I was 28, was very blessed and I was ranked in the top 15, 20 in the world, 200 freestyle, 400 freestyle, 200 IM, 400 IM, 200 fly, 100 breast, 200 breast. So, you know, I wasn’t that good when I was young, but the coaches that I had, they got me fit and they taught me how to understand how to swim fast.

The influences in my thoughts for breaststroke. I guess the first one would be Jozsef Nagy, he’s Hungarian; he’s the developer of the wave breaststroke. I’ll talk about it later, he was my coach, between 1989 and 1992. He’s been like my mentor and I guess, I consider him my family. I’m the godfather of one of his kids. Anytime that I’m sad or that I don’t know with who to talk, I call him up and he’s always there for me.

All my other coaches, before Jordi Murio, my coach in Spain, I had 12 coaches. Well, you know they were very good and I don’t think that they had any influence in me to be what I am, but Jordi Murio, Doc Counsilman, Jozsef Nagy, Andrés Jonama, Frank Busch, Rick DeMont and Bob Groseth, I think these have been the ones that have had a direct impact on me. Frank Busch, you know, when I was 20, like my last year of swimming when I was 27 right before the Atlanta games, I was already qualified for the 200 breaststroke for my country, but I had an injury in my knee, the only one that I had in my life.

I was training in Budapest, my knee locked; I went back to Spain, next day they did surgery. They did arthroscopy and they found out that I had no meniscus so I had bone-to-bone and some piece of cartilage was in between my bones and created an ulcer. So they had to clean it up and after evaluating what was happening with my knees, Joseph and I decided that I had, if I could swim in Atlanta that I would swim in the breaststroke, probably I would have problems by now, by the time I was 40 or 50 years old.

And I had a good career, so I thought, I asked Joseph because, you know, the year before I was 2:00 fly, unshaved, training very high in long course and I asked him, “Do you think I can go 1:58, do you think I can go 1:48 in the 200 freestyle?” because I saw I was pretty good in that, and he said, “Yes, but I cannot coach you. You know, you have to go somewhere else.” I asked him the reason why he said “Sergio, you don’t need a coach, you need a swimmer. Find a good swimmer an elite swimmer because you don’t have that much time. Go and train with them and watch and train and watch.”

So, I tried to go to Australia, I tried to go to Italy, I tried to go with Jon Urbancek, the only one that really liked me was Frank Busch, so I went and trained with him. I trained with him for — I trained with him for 6 month or 7 month in the distance group, went to my trials, didn’t swim very well. And then I had 3 or 4 months before I had to retire, so I wanted to understand what a sprinter does. So I asked Rick if I could train with him, so I trained with Rick for 3 to 4 months, to try to learn because to me I couldn’t understand how a sprinter does a 50 and gets the wall [breathing hard], so I had to experience that. So it was a very learning experience and sometimes you ask yourself, “Why I am here?”

You know, well, Frank was the one, Frank Busch was the one that gave me my first job in America and it’s been 17 years and hopefully 17 more, you know. Bob Groseth is the only one that didn’t coach me in the water, but Bob is a brilliant man, and he was always had great conversations and he always had a way of stimulating my brain and making me feel important and taught me things. So I have to thank him and then what I learned with my experiences as a swimmer and as a coach.

We at Bolles don’t have like a Ryan Murphy or a Joseph Schooling and that’s kind of hard for me because I always wanted to coach world-class breaststroker, I wanted to develop world-class breaststroker, you know, but you know, I know, I understand breaststroke very well and I know like, for example at Bolles, you know, in the last few years, you know, we had some since I’ve been there, we’ve had boys between 55:3 and 1:00:09, and 1:01 flat, we had 30 plus kids and a lot of these kids, are not breaststrokers.

If you look at for example Ryan Murphy walks this way and when he started swimming with me, he will split like what, :38 or :39 in that breaststroke. So I had to figure out how can he go at :29, how can he go a :30 point. So, and you know, a way of teaching him was he has a beautiful streamline, let’s teach him a good pull-out, because I’m going to talk afterwards short course and long course are two totally different strokes, two totally different sports. And, you know, by the time he left, he was, split a :30 point in the 200 IM.

I had a couple of kids that come in, you know, as freshmen, you know, and they were freestylers and by the time they left to college they were under 2:00 200 breaststroke or they were going 55 in 100 breaststroke. Nowadays, it’s about a 53, it is, look at that we have 6, 7 or 8 in high school doing 53s or 1:54s, but its impressive. In the girls, I had a little more complicated to coach teenage girls, you have too many issues sometimes. Sorry about that, and I haven’t had as much, we haven’t had as much success, but we’ve had 20 plus girls, you know, in the last few years going anywhere between 1:02 and 1:08. So, and for any high school team, I think that’s very good.

Yes, some of the, sorry we cannot see much, but here are some of the times, I thought it would be bigger, but some of the times that our guys have posted, you know, we have five, four guys under :56 and there’s another one, there’s a list up there, you know, :58, but he’s already been :55. So that list is very impressive, you know, and we take pride in that. You know, like, I will give you an example. Joseph Schooling, he’s from a 200 breaststroke, he was 2:19 in yards, when he was a freshman and one day he wanted to get out of practice and he said, “Let’s do a swim off,” and I said, “Okay,” I came Ryan Murphy and “Let’s do a swim off” and he said, “If I go 2:12 in a 200 breaststroke, we’ll get out of practice”, you know, he went 2:19, but I told him, “No, no, no you need to go under 2:10.” The guy standout and Ryan behind him the guy went 2:08 and Ryan went 2:10 in practice.

He was a freshman and I was like “Uh?” And the few weeks before we were talking about things that I am going to show you about the hands and how to use the kick and how to use the feet, you know, very nifty guy and you know. He’s been in practice as a junior last year he could go in practice 1:04, 1:05 long course in sets, not in sets, but, you know, standing up, but for a non-breaststroker that’s–.

I am going to explain a little bit before we go to the differences that I believe, I am going to explain a little bit of the rest of the components that I think that are important. Most important thing is the straight-line, you know, like when Jozsef Nagy talked about the wave breaststroke, I think people misunderstood. It’s, you know, because the most important thing is the bottom-line is the straight line. You know, what is the shortest distance between two points? Straight, you know, if you watch Rebecca Soni and Kevin Cordes, two totally different strokes, but what’s the common thing, who can tell me what’s the common thing that they have?

[audience member]: They hit their bodyline fast at each stroke.

[Lopez]: Sure, but in my opinion, the most important thing if you watch it is that the center of gravity never moves from the surface of the water. So they keep their speed constant and that’s the trick. The breaststroke, the hard part is how can I keep the speed; the speed constant. You know, and if you watch them, their center of gravity doesn’t go like this. Like you watch breaststrokers in my age back in the 80’s and, you know, the stroke look like a heartbeat, kind of like boom, boom, you had a dead point.

And you watched some of this and they keep it like shh, shh, you know, and that’s I think is the base, that’s the trick, but you have the straight line, then the hands, how you move your hands, the pull. I think breathing is something that we don’t teach and it’s very important. We teach to breathe, but we take it for granted, like, you know we take for granted like when we walk that we are breathing properly. The shoulders, the lunging forward, the kick and the timing. The goal for my breaststroke, the one that I like to teach is to keep the center of gravity, navel, hips always close to the surface of the water in order to keep the speed constant, so I can go from point A to point B in the shortest period of time.

You know when people thought when Mike Harmon went 2:10, people were like, “Wow, he’s accelerating at the end.” No, everybody else is decelerating, he just kept his speed, you know, and the way that he kept his speed is like with all these different components, he was able to, every time that he, you know as the race was going on he would apply something else to be able to keep that center of gravity always on the top. So he wouldn’t lose speed like you know, you watch some kids, you know, the kids that really die, like let’s say a guy that goes :53 in yards and then goes 1:06 in long course, we have many of those.

What happens if he goes 1:06 in long course, he is swimming like this. You know, the first 50 he might go 30 point, like on top of the water and the last 50 he’s like–, you know. And it’s all here, you know. And then like the hands, the pull, the shoulders, the lunging forward, the kick all those components will help you and you can, you can manipulate those components to make your stroke better, you know, if you train that way.

You know, the straight line, this is the basic and most important position in breaststroke, like swim straight line and keeping the center of gravity always close to the surface of the water, I thought I corrected that.

Everything you do with the rest of the stroke components is to bring you back to this position with every cycle. So the stroke that I like, like for example when I saw my best time, I went 2:12:24 in 1990, the world record was 2:12:7 or 2:12:9 at that time, you know, before the race because by the time I touched the wall, Mike went 2:11:9. So I got second, so I didn’t get, I got the European record. But my best time before the race in 100 breaststroke was 1:05:0, 1:05:0 and I went out in 1:04:6.

I could not sprint to save my life when I was young, you know, we didn’t lift weights. They didn’t teach me how to understand speed. So anytime two days later at that meet when I tried the 200 breaststroke; I went 01:04:6, [breathing hard]. At the Olympic Games in Seoul, I went 1:06 in the 100 breaststroke, three days before the 200 breaststroke. That’s, so hard, I tried, and then, you know, in the 200 breaststroke I went out in 1:05:05 just [cruising], you know.

So, you know, to me what I understand is this type of stroke, you know, because the powerful one, I’ve learned to understand it. But I understand how to hold the streamline, and how to feel the water and how to keep that speed. Speed, you can be going like one millimeter per second that speed but you can, you know, you can feel like shh, shh, shh and you can put something else to keep that speed moving, and that’s the trick.

The bottom-line that I will say is I just want to emphasize what I believe is what’s the shortest distance between two points? A straight line and that is what the breaststroke is all about, keeping the center of gravity close to the surface of the water. So the speed is constant throughout the race and simple, in my opinion, you know, if you try to teach, if you try to change the stroke of every kid that you have, you know, we have a lot of kids swimming good breaststroke and not many of them do it the same, and I’m not going to try to do make them do the same.

Some of them may end up looking the same because they can feel few things the same or because they’re copying one another. But it’s very hard sometimes to teach certain behaviors and, you know, how to go from concave to convex with your back and some are very stiff here and some are there. So if they cannot do it, you have to figure it out and bring some – some other component.

Why two types of breaststroke and hopefully this makes sense. To me there are many ways of swimming breaststroke, but more in aesthetic way than in a technical way. What I mean with that is like if I go to junior nationals and I watch the heats or, you know, the prelims and finals, you know, the A, B, and C finals of the 100 breaststroke or the 200 breaststroke, you don t see almost two people swimming the same way from the outside, you know, and aesthetically they look different.

Some of them look really bad and they are like, how this kid can swim, but then you watch and the hands are really pressing out and the feet are really moving this way and catching the water and you know, But from the outside, it’s not like freestyle that you can appreciate it because you know, in freestyle you have your arms, maybe your hips and your feet a little.

In backstroke at one point you have your back, you have everything and the way people move outside of the water is so different. But in my opinion, if I had to really make it small, I would focus on the pull more than the kick to define this. There are two distinctive types of breaststrokes that are defined by the way the swimmers pull and one would be turning, pressing out, I didn’t know how to, hopefully this makes sense to you guys.

But turning pressing out, it looks like a Y, you know, when, you know and I will explain that you know, when your hand, when your hand, when your thumb, when you are in the streamline and you start pulling, your thumb is perpendicular to the bottom of the pool and you’re going to press out this way. And the other one pressing down with the hands, sorry perpendicular, no, parallel, sorry no perpendicular, parallel, I try to be technical and I am screwing myself out.

Pressing down the hands parallel to the bottom of the pool. You know they go like this, you know, and, you know, people do this and the one like, you know, that’s like I said before I totally believe that the short-course yards and long-course meters are two totally different sports. Two totally different sports. In a short course yards, you can fake, 50 or 100, you can probably fake a 200 you know, maybe even a 400 you know.

But in a long course there is no way you can fake. You have to be technically sound and you have to be fit. I believe the pressing down pull stroke in my opinion is more efficient for short course, for short course race, you know, and if you watch the big dudes or like the big guys or the younger girls that haven’t hit puberty haven’t developed yet, don’t have a chest and don’t have a butt, you know, they go like, you know, on top of the water. You know like a water bottle, you know, and what happens when a girl’s hips, most of the time a girl is twelve goes 1:11 in 100 breaststroke, is 15 she is going 1:13, and I bet that that girl could still go 1:11.

We had an example that came to us right before the ’92 Olympics, a Hungarian girl, 18-years-old, she went 1:12, and no she was 1:10 when she was 12. She came to us when she was 18 and still was doing 1:12. Nine months later she got sixth at the Olympics, I think she was 1:07or 1:08, you know. Because while I was coaching her, I did a great job to keeping her in shape because she was fit. But technically I don’t think she was able to understand what she had to do and change her stroke. So now that she’s a woman and things have changed, her body is moving through the water very differently. And that’s, that’s the key.

The turning pressing out full stroke, I believe is more efficient for long course, and long course racing or 200 breaststroke, 200 or 400 IM in short course yards because, you know, more, you know, the 200 IM and 400 IM, you have to really understand the stroke, if not you’re going to have a hard time finishing those rounds, yes sir?

[audience member]: And so you say coach you teach both of them to everybody?

[Lopez]: I teach, I try to teach the pressing out because that’s what I like and I think they’re going to be successful in the long term, but if a kid wants to swim breaststroke and wants to be part of our relay or we don’t have a breaststroker that season, then the only way that he can go is this way and I will work that way, makes sense? I think the important thing that I have learned is to understand each component and dissect the kid, you know, and then dissect the components that I have and hopefully get them to understand the best way possible you know.

You will make a mistake, –. I tell the kids, “Let’s try this”. Well, if you try it just because you tried it ten times, you are not going to change that behavior. You know, “Oh! It feels awful.” So what? You know, and, you know, you will know that when you change that behavior, you know, if you feel it is awful, it’s because something has happened, you know. But, but I think you have to be flexible. I mean, you have to be, if you have the knowledge of how that works, you know there’s many ways, I was telling somebody there’s a saying in Spanish that, I’m not sure if I am saying it right. But, that there’s anymore because I live in the Twilight Zone, because the Spanish Catalan and English, but there’s one thousand ways to get to Rome. You know, this way, that way, straight line.

Well, I believe there are many different ways of kicking to complement both the ways of pooling, you know. Like somebody like Ryan Murphy, they walk like this, and he is looking at you like that, I cannot teach him the perfect breaststroke kick that I believe, you need to do why? Because if he tries to do that he’s going to scrub his groins.

He will, like even whatever we try to do we have to be very careful, because if he did it very often, he will have a big problem, we’d have doctors in our practice. So you know, you have to play with different types of kick, small and big. I will talk about the kick later on.

We will start with the hands. You know, talking about the hands, you know, what I will teach is like you have your thumb perpendicular towards the bottom of the pool, you know, and you press out this way.

I am in a perfect streamline, you know, my cycle I finish my kick, and when I am in this position; the first thing I do I press out. Why? Because when I press out this way, my body becomes like the bottom of the boat and it’s going to slide out, makes sense. Like the example that I give the kids is if I get a kick-board and I go like this and I press it down, and I take my hand out, what happens with the kick, he goes –. If I get a kick-board with two fingers like this and I put it diagonally in the water and I let go, what happens? It shoots forward. So I want my body to have that effect.

So in the moment that I finish my kick and I am pressing out and I am pressing, and I finish my kick, you know, I feel that speed and I press out, I am keeping that speed constant and my body is going from this and it going to become concrete and we are going to talk about that later.

The pressing out helps the body slide out. It helps the hips be steady, because at one point still don’t have to learn to anything with your hips, if you keep your body in a good streamline, your thigh here, you are going to go this way. It generates more speed. Maybe that’s wrong, keeps the speed constant all right. Body is powerful, uses first the forearm and then the biceps, you know, if you do this, and if you have guys like who do lot of breaststroke and maybe depending what exercises they do outside the water, they will have problems with their tendons here. I don’t know if you ever had anybody going, hey coach here it’s painful. You know, and it’s because they go, when you go like this, like that, like that, like that you just forearm, you use different muscles on your forearm and then you engage your biceps, make sense.

When you catch the water and you press a little like this then you use your biceps. And also too, like Joseph always told us that it’s important to use, even though if it’s one millisecond, it’s important to use different muscles. To use sequences of different muscles, so I can, my body is fresh, you know, if I use the same muscle, you say and then we’ll see, you view an example about, only using the biceps at the end of the race. You know, I am very strong and when the guys come out of the water, mainly the boys they look like –, like huge. But when, you know, the palm faces down, pressing down the palm faces down, like this, and when you do this what happens? Instead of just sliding out, I am raising myself up and when I raise myself up, something is going down. Something goes up and what goes down? My hips go down. I go like this, now you have some guys in short course, or some of those in short course, they are very good, and they are not tired, they can keep their hips high. But when they start getting with the arms, they don’t understand how to keep that area, you know, high. So that’s why I prefer this one better, you know.

So I can go, I can slide out, and then I can go, and then I am still using, you know, my hands, you know, my pull, then I use my shoulders like I am going to explain to keep moving and then never stop. It lifts the upper body earlier and higher, and goes up not forward. It goes forward, but you know it’s not at one point. I don’t know if it makes sense like the wave press, if you want to think like, what Joseph developed is a wave, that is good, you know, you have to work on the longitude of the wave not on the amplitude of the wave. Does that makes sense? People thought the wave is faster, and they go up and down, no it goes very close to the surface of the water, and you just keep moving in that direction. So think about the longitude, so that is the shortest distance between two points. One wave like that, you know, not five waves.

As I said when you pull breaststroke, palm face down, you know my hips go down, you know. It might only be one-tenth of a second, but if you do 20 strokes at the end of the race in the last lap, and if your hips keep moving like that one tenth of a second slower and slower. Exponentially, maybe your last 50, you got three seconds, 15 seconds, and you see that may times in the breaststroke.

It generates more power, because you are going to generate more power with the biceps, you know, you know, lift yourself up and then you are going to pull, I leave it like butterfly and start using the biceps right away, that that’s in my opinion that’s a negative thing. Like I don’t have pictures, these are all, all these pictures are very old, they are from 1989. This is Mike Bottom, like Joseph is a good friend, but he didn’t like me, he didn’t take pictures with me.

So but as you can see hopefully you can appreciate this is the why that I wrote, you know, the hands are like this, pressing down, and he’s moving forward. He just keeps moving, you see this one, the one on the bottom, the perfect streamline, the hip is over there, the hands are still turning out. And feet, you know, are together, so that’s what I try to teach. The pull is very important when the swimmer is done pressing out, that the swimmer pulls having the fingertip pointing towards the bottom of the pool. You watched Daniel Gyurta, when he was younger, now he seems a little bit different. He looked like he was doing butterfly. You know, he would catch the water here and he went like this, like this, and out of the blue, he went like that, and he under laid it with his hips. You know, what I try to teach my kids is that they press out, and you want to catch, you want to press like this.

It’s not many of them will go perpendicularly like that, like their fingertips perpendicular to the bottom of the pool because you have to be very strong. But if, you know, and you also, when teach things like this, you know, pressing out, like if you teach a little kid to press out, and they go too far away, they’re going to get their shoulders, they got to get their elbows behind their hips and they’re going to sink. You know they are going to be like this, you know.

So, you know, when they are young, you want to stress like for example, what I stress is like you are not pressed out, and when you are in perfect streamline and when your hand passes your shoulder width, then I start becoming the bottom, you know, I start becoming a little bit concave to, you know, and I just slide out. Make sense? Like if you just start up when you are young, with you’re, you know, right after, you know, pressing out and then changing you know, you are not running the race, like too far out and, you know, as they get stronger, naturally they are going to be wider, wider and wider.

Look how wide Mike is over there, and look at the wave, look at this. You know, whoever has, you know, gone to the beach and catch a wave and you catch a wave and you’re on top of the wave and you generate a speed like, you know, moving on top of the wave, this is what he is doing. He is sliding out and he is going to utilize that and look at that. That’s a beautiful picture, and, you know, that system, those things talking about Bob Groseth, I am not going to be technical you can — but what’s happening there, that water is moving back and it’s going to push, it’s going to go like this. It’s going to create like a close circuit this is going to end up pushing him. Yeah, so then very quickly the swimmers slides the hands forward and squeezes the elbows together.

You never like — in order to keep your center of gravity always on top of, close to the surface of the water, you don’t want your elbow to be pass your line, pass your hips, never. Like you will see some very fast guys or girls they will go –, some people. But we want to teach always like the elbow in front, because like this, you are going to be able to keep the hips high. When I am like this, first thing I am going to do, I am going to drop my hips. And then as the race goes, you know, it is more and more and more. Okay, so you want always pressing out, like pressing out, pressing down and then you want to make sure that the elbow is always in front of you.

Breathing, you know, I will tell you the way I teach, I haven’t really analyzed the breathing for the other type of stroke, because I have the feeling that a lot of the guys in short course yards, like if you look at the NCAA many of them are just, you know, besides Cortes and some guys and — a lot of people. And I am not sure if they breathe this way, you know, but I think breathing is the most important component too.

One of the most important, but not in just breaststroking, in every stroke, but breaststroke and butterfly, we don’t teach I think this type of breathing. You know I think it’s important to hold your breath until the last moment, you know. Many kids, or many people, you know, when they ask you to breathe, and you’re in a streamline position, what do you do? You blow bubbles. When you blow bubbles what happens? You sink, you know, you can do this, you can grab one of your kids, and then put them in, if you have a diving well put them in a diving well in a perfect streamline.

And out of the blue tell them “okay now, you’re going to exhale as hard as you can,” and what will happen? They sink, but they sink exponentially a little faster. It’s like a very interesting thing like — you know. So that’s the same analogy, if you want to, like it doesn’t happen at that rate, but if you keep up blowing bubbles, you know, you don’t have the same buoyancy. Don’t take advantage and we take that for granted.

How many of you, have had said like, you know, okay, you know, like, 30x100s, on 1:30s, best average and, you know, you’re over there all excited and, you know, you have couple of kids, in a couple of lanes [breathing hard] — and you look at them and it’s like, “Coach I cannot make this,” and you really look at them and you see their lips are very purple.

How many of you have had you look at their lips and realize that, “Hey, your lips are purple.” “Why that your lips are purple?” because you are not breathing proper, you have too much carbon dioxide in your body. You are not exhaling, you try to breath. We teach the kids to breathe, by inhaling. I think you need to do the opposite, you need to teach the kids to breathe by exhaling.

Exhale. If I do this, automatically the air comes in, now if I swim, and I don’t do this, [exhale] and what I do is [inhale] you know, after 50 times, what I have done? You know, I keep the visible carbon dioxide that is in my lungs keeps getting more, more, and more, more, and by the end of the race many times you have a kid that is very fit, and has a bad day, and is stressed out or whatever or has some sort of induced asthma. And he is acting up because I am nervous, or she is going to beat me today–, so what happens? They go, “Coach I don’t understand, come again,” and they are breathing from their chest, and they are like they cannot breathe, they cannot put anything else inside.

So if you pay attention and you watch your kids, and you realize oh! Wow this kid has really purple lips and you stopped the kid and say, “Okay Jimmy, make sure you breathe. Breathe”. Maybe for the first few times, they are going to get dizzy, they are going to swallow water, because what happens you create kind of a vacuum system, you know, if you do it right in breaststroke. I remember when Joseph taught me how to release, I thought he was crazy, because I swallowed so much water and, you know, and he is like, “Oh my god.” You know.

But, you know, the first time, it makes you feel you are hyperventilating. Well, you are not, the other way you really –. So I think breathing is very important thing, we don’t think to teach because we don’t take it for granted. We go like, “Okay we are going to teach bilateral breathing because it is good for balance.” Come on, are you kidding me? You know, now I go to my daughter’s class and she is a sophomore in high school and I go to the teacher, “can I do a test?”

“Can I have everybody with two pens, and I am going to dictate this paragraph, and you are going to do two sentences with the right and two sentences with left.” Can they do it? No, they can’t. So some people, will do it better than others, so some people will do bilateral, but some people can’t and they can breathe bilateral, and they if they try to breathe bilateral, they change their bodyline and, so many things happens. But we because of balance, teach balance in a different way.

You know, teach them how to breathe and how to understand, you know, so don’t teach them, “we are going to breathe every third,” you know, teach them how to have good breathing pattern, and how to exhale not inhale.

You know how many of you have done meditation? You know, what did you do, what is one of the first thing they teach you in mediation, you are going to breathe through diaphragm. Why? Because that’s the way the babies breathe, yeah. You are going to breathe through diaphragm you are going to inhale through your nose, and you are going to raise your stomach, you know, I look like pregnant, and then, you know, exhale through your mouth and then you are going to get your stomach, down. That’s breathing through your diaphragm. Instead all of us most of us, what do we do? We breathe through our chest. Hmm, hmm and we are shutting ourselves out, eh and, so that’s its very important, you know, think about it, you know, maybe it’s not a tool for you, but it’s worked very well for me and I was teaching the kids how to do it.

I will tell you one story and not because of the breathing, this happened. But my senior year in college, I was so upset. When I came to America I was very happy to be part of the team. When I left, I swam for Doc Counsilman, and then I transferred and I went to, I wanted to go to Texas and Arizona and all these places, but then I met Jozsef and I ended up going to the American University, because at one point I was so disappointed about the experience that I had, as a teen, you know. I always had this vision of America like and everything for a teen.

At Indiana, Doc Counsilman was unbelievable. He was like my grandfather, but the kids in the team didn’t respect… they respected the name, but they didn’t respect him by training hard every day being over there. They felt that they respected him because they were nice to him and this and that. So I had to go. I left.

In my senior year I didn’t want to go to NCAAs, so “why wouldn’t I want to go to NCAAs?” you know. I had a good experience, I went to NCAA’s I was very lucky I got in the finals where I got second or third, whatever it was and I don’t have a team. I want to focus for World Championships at the Europeans, so I told my head coach–Jozsef was just was an assistant. I told my head coach I don’t want to go. I don’t want to go to NCAAs, and I was like okay “ah you know” and then he got together with Jozsef and they came back and said “Sergio why you don’t want to go”. I was like “You know blah, blah, blah,”, but okay “I will go if you let me swim what I want.” So I wanted to swim the 500, so he said “well, but you don’t have a time, it’s February, January you don’t have time. Well, I said don’t worry I called Victrol they are going to meet in Luxembourg. We use to go to meet in Luxembourg every year in February or somewhere along that. It was a long course, and, so I said I want to go to that meet and I am going to qualify in long course. I think 4:57 or 4:59, so I was able to qualify at that time NCAA’s and the only thing that I did was thinking about my breathing. When I went to NCAAs I went 4:29 the first time I swam the 500 freestyle. Well, in the morning I was 4:22 and in the night I was 4:19. And I focused on my breathing because that is something I could control and that made my kick better, you know, what I did in the freestyle the same thing that I did in Brazil, exhale, exhale and it worked for me.

Any questions about the breathing? Hold the breath. If you watch a lot of kids like if you have this picture you don’t see any bubbles this is Mike again and see how wide this is. You don’t want to teach that a young kid, you know, you want to teach the concept and, you know, and you want the kid to reach that point by getting stronger naturally in the water and getting better with the stroke technically, but you don’t want to start with that.

Shoulders are very important because the shoulders, you know, as you can see each part has a crucial part in the stroke the shoulders are very important to, you know, if a lot of people I think thought that Joseph always told us to come out with the head in a certain angle and keep it like that. That’s wrong. He never told us that like when I came out of the this stroke then I was like this, at one point if you took a picture of me you could see my face perfectly, if you took a perfect picture. Now what you do is you use your shoulders and by relaxing by pressing out and coming out like this for a moment just for a moment, you take the pressure off here the tissues and all this muscle. Ask some of the guys that you have because I have few that swim like this and you go, “hey does it hurt here?” Just tell them, “does it hurt right here?” “Yeah I know it gets, so tired.” Just all the time they swim like that and at the end of the race it’s very hard to keep up.

Like we said you want to change muscle, muscle, muscle the same thing you know, so you can keep moving. So shoulders are very important and the swimmers need to squeeze and bring them to the ears like one of the things that Joseph taught us is like this you go you press out and then you squeeze everything in, you bring the shoulders to your ears. Now, I used that concept with butterfly too. I do it a lot with my butterfly is, what I try to do is like, so they keep moving forward instead of like being in the shoulders here I think what they lunge forward to think about bringing the shoulders above the ears. It’s just a thought. Just think about throwing your shoulders like if you are going to be able to throw your shoulders above your ear and it becomes the stroke becomes a lot more relaxed.

Yeah I guess I brought it here, you know, tip for the swimmers when lunging forward think about taking the shoulders above the ears know it’s important like if I press out if I am coming out I go like this and here what I want is shoulder. When I was at the Commonwealth Games, it was very interesting, this past July and I was very interestingly watching the breaststrokers that Scotland has, the Murdoch kid that went from 2:13 to 2:08 before the Commonwealth Games, and then went 2:07. And I watched him for five days every day in practice and I remember I don’t know two three members I don’t know who remembers Nick Gillingham and all those guys from England they swim very similarly they don’t bring their shoulder to their ears, but they keep everything very high they keep they are so efficient like they are pressing out they are going like this, but they I still don’t understand how, but they keep everything on top of the water and high and its very impressive. Not of all the British and Scottish and world swimmers it was out of six or eight there was only one guy there that was lunging forward everybody else is like and everything in front of your body. Everything in front. And that’s the advantage of pressing out like when you press out like this at the end of the race you are moving you end up moving your elbows back, and you are going to be like, pump…makes sense.

Lunging forward, you know, when, you know, when you use this stroke and you slide out what we try to teach, you know, the head is the heaviest part of the body, so you have to utilize it now you went from the shoulders to the ears now I use the head and the head being the heaviest part of my body is going to leave my hips. So what I want to do is throw my head forward, not down you know, when I press out and when I go like this and then I go like this my head goes up and most of the time these guys keep it like that and they go down, you know, at the middle of the race they go a little bit forward, bit forward, but at the end of the race they go down you can watch that on the stroke rate or the stroke efficiency. You watch some of these guys and you will see them [blowing sounds] and at the end they, so what we teach what I like to teach and again that’s more effective for long course and for events like 400 IM what I try to teach is I press out, you know, I pull my fingers down I catch a little bit broader like butterfly here, I bring everything in front of me I squeeze my shoulders and then I think of throwing my head where I throw my hands And that’s impossible. But that thought and then when I lunge my head forward where my hands go I think of my navel and I want my navel to press. So I slide out throw, my head forward get my navel in, so I can be when I get in, you know, I am in a perfect streamline.

Yes sir?

[audience member]: Do you keep your hands behind your head or?

[Lopez]: The hands always the concept is to throw your head, your head where your hands go, but the hands are always ahead, you know, you don’t want to throw both at the same time, you know, the hands are moving quicker you want. And you can teach slow, a little but faster, and fast because this power what you do you just don’t want to go back and it’s not really doing anything for you to go forward, so you want to go as fast as you can to reach that streamline. So slow, slow, faster, and really fast.

[audience member]: Now we are at a meet?

[Lopez]: Yeah, you know, think of the champion forward that’s the theme for the little kids the hands a lot of people ask how do I throw my hands like this like that, you know, I think if you I like throwing them like this, you know, like this is the same concept of the kick well I can feel my speed better if I go like this I am lifting myself up, you know, and maybe that’s what the British people do, but a lot of the kids cannot feel this is going up and when they go up they go like this they drop their heads.

You see that’s the girl from Canada that Joseph coaches and its coming out and look at here at the back, the head is trying to follow the hands look at this.

You know if you have a swimmer that survived, you know, it’s like if you take a video and you slow it down and at one point it looks like a dolphin or whale just going like this and you only see the back of it.

This is from TV and I just took pictures of the video this is the Olympics the finish from NBC I think or from one of the channels. This I mean you cannot swim every stroke like that, you can’t but that’s the concept I try to teach.

Now watch this. Look at that look at that. You know it’s almost perfect streamline with his fingers like that and then it’s like kind of hard to say, but he touches and he goes like that. And look at the center of gravity, right. Now what, you know, that’s what you want always that if you want that power not to have too much water, you know. Because when you are in that perfect streamline you press out you go from this position to this position what you do when you watch swimmers they push water out. You see many swimmers they go [sound], you know, because think about this concept how many times you go to the fridge open grab a gallon of water or, you know, at the supermarket go and grab a gallon of water for whatever reason you have your hand straight it’s like and now that is just one gallon, you know, how many gallons of water if you hit some like this you have under your hips with them pressing you down you don’t to feel them because they disperse. But they are going like this you know. So, what you want is like you want to slide out and when you lunge forward you want to press out. If it happens you know, but throwing my head forward bringing my navel in, you know, and it does not happen with the swimmer that goes straight up and lunges forward at the end of the race what is happening is this [sounds].

The kick: feet together well let’s say this the kick that I like to teach there are many different kicks, but I have my feet together, so this is my hands moving my feet my elbow is my knee and my shoulders my butt. I have a nice butt. So, I go like this, I keep my feet together I bring my feet inside my hips, my hips’ width, I bring them, in I accelerate this last part I am going to explain why to you, so what I want to do is like I go like this and from the middle to the end I accelerate. I really want to accelerate and the reason why do this and go home and watch your breaststrokers walk around when there swimming and you will see, watch their kick you will see that they go one kick, and the next kick, one kick and then next kick, or two kicks like that if they are good kickers.

But they consistently they going to bring their heels here. Now the reason why you want to accelerate the second part of the kick, is because one of the muscles that helps you rotate your ankle is the sartorius you know the sartorius goes from here like an S, you know, to here and what it does it helps you really rotate your feet. Breaststrokes, you know, they walk like this and that and whatever and they have funny knees and funny ankles. So, they have the ability maybe to turn their feet, but for the normal person if you think that, if you’re going to accelerate this part then you try to catch the water here, you think you’re going to rotate your feet here you are totally wrong because the sartorius are very long and thin muscle that has no power. So, if I do this by the time my ankle is going to turn, I am going to be here, so then my kick is very small and that at the end of the race that’s death. It’s like, now you can teach a swimmer by trying to move it only to have a small kick and finish that pound David Marsh, I don’t know what he is listening to me because he is he had at Auburn, so many kids with such a small kick and the kick was like fast you know. But that kick like Dennison how long it took him to swim a good 200 in long course? Many years your watching the show because he is, so fast and in the 100 very fast in the 200 [sound] why because he did not understand how to put that kick and keep his body in a line and I remember when I saw him go to 2:12 I think “wow finally.” But he was pretty old you know.

So what you want to do is like you want to teach your kids to accelerate the second part of the kick, so you can create a spring motion with the sartorius you are going to call it that way as a spring effect. So I can pad, I can help my turn on my ankle and catch with the water earlier. Like, I am putting like this like I was at the Junior Pan Pacs and I watched I don’t know the name of the Japanese breaststroker, but she is 13 and she was 2:24. I never seen a kick like that. The girl brings her heels like right here and then she turns and catches the water here and goes. You cannot teach that I think you can teach it, you know, and we had this conversation with Joszef, if I get the kid when it’s a baby then I start manipulating the ankles.

It’s okay we manipulate their minds we manipulate their things, so I manipulate their ankles now I am not going to hurt him or hurt her. I am just going to create that and then yeah he is going to walk funny and you know, but that’s the only way I know how to do it I guess. Or you know, so watch your kids and experiment with that try and teach them. If the kids don’t have awareness of their, you know, you tell them, you know, “you need to turn out your ankle a little bit more,” and they will go, “coach did I do it because I am trying.” It’s like they don’t even know what they are doing, you know, they don’t it’s very hard, you know, it’s a very hard this to feel. I don’t know the Japanese are very successful with the breaststroke you know, but at least for us it’s a very hard thing to teach. Now one of the drills that I do, one of the steps that I do, that has worked very well for me, so I can create awareness, and I can have the kid understand the water, with the feet their knee and the hips the ankles, I will do this three exercises that I do. I’ll do the first one, is the one that we all know have used is like egg beater ,I go egg beater. And I teach them and mainly, I am going to teach them I don’t want to go egg beater like this egg beater like that I want to go egg beater there the heels come to my hip and I try to press it straight back and anatomically it is impossible, you know, nobody can press it straight back because the way we are built the feet is going to go like this it’s going to go down a little it’s going to move up, you know, it’s going to finish. But you got to teach the concept of pressing straight back, so they go finish and finish not like you finish one you go with the other one you do 4×25’s like that. After that you do 4×25’s with knees together no pull-buoy, no nothing and it’s, so hard. And this is really hard because what happens is that like, they feel so self-conscience, they go so slow, they cannot really keep their knees together, but now they are feeling their knees they know where their knees are. And what’s happening to its very interesting is that when you do these exercise for whatever reason, the way we built, your feet are going to be pointing down, and when your toes point down, you are down, because your hips are going to drop. So they do 4×25’s for example and, you know, it takes some kids a minute and half to get to the other end, you know. But, you know, you do that and go check on the move, think about it.

The next one is heels together, you know, you get your heels together. What you want to do you want to press out like this and teach them how to press out like this. Doesn’t matter the width, at this moment you don’t worry about the width of your knees, so your streamline heels together and you can do that before they get into the water outside the water and then boom, and you start with the small kicks. Then you bring it more and more towards your butt. And then, after you’ve gone 12×25, let’s go and do 4×100, 25 alternating legs, 25 knees together 25 heels together, 25 regular breaststroke kicks. We go on two minutes for example, and that 25 regular breaststroke kick, we going to descend one to four, and I want the fourth one to be good, like strong.

You will see a huge difference. They will be like, “Wow! I have a knee, coach,” because they feel it. The only thing we have done is give them awareness. Many times we take it for granted. More and more and breaststroke there are so many little components. So watch your kids make sure they speed up, press back and finish, and you are going to finish with your feet together. You know, people are, a lot of people are doing butterfly kick, you know. I know I taught Jozsef how to cheat. Yeah, you want to call that in the breaststroke. Because he has a very good breaststroke. How to cheat at the beginning, and then ween him out. Because I watched Ryan Lochte a lot, Ryan Lochte, he was down and, we all seen it. He never gets disqualified. Like if I do it, I would get disqualified. If you do it you, will get disqualified. You know, I think it’s a good way to teach sometimes. But, you have to be, you know, to teach and make the kid aware that you will not be able to do that, but you can feel the body line, you can feel the speed, and you try to teach the kid how to maybe hold it don’t do that, you know, and ween him out, or ween her out. But you have to be careful.

Now one trick that I think I had mentioned it before to the guys, that I learnt from a couple of Asian kids that I coach actually one Asian kid that I coach, when I was watching her underwater. This girl will finish her kick and you know will turn out her feet and her toes will go like this. She will throw her toes and her line would be like perfect. So, I thought, “hey I can tell my kids this is not about kicking butterfly or anything, and its very simple doesn’t take stress.” So, now, I teach my kids, you know, to drop their feet, you know, “hey when you finish your kick you want feet together and close your toes.” And it works very well. You do that on the start too. When you have a kid like that dives in the first thing, you know, it has a good line the first thing it happens they drop their feet tell them to curl their toes and it changes drastically, yes.

[audience member]: So, you’re trying to get bottom of the feet together?

[Lopez]: Yes, well like for example, you see like that. You don’t want to get that this is really hard and some kids can do it, but it’s like normal kids cannot do that. So, like, you know, and that really puts so much pressure on your groin. What you want to teach is keeping your toes in a straight line always up. Like, if you watch the kids will go like this, you know, like I told Eddie Reese one time I said, “Eddie, I was watching this video and I think it was 2004, and Brendan Hanson lost the 200 breaststroke. I don’t really remember which Olympics, against Kitajima and Gyurta, and he lost it. If you watch his kick he goes like this [sounds], like this one foot higher than the other and by the end of the race he was going even bigger. That’s what slowed him down. The other two guys who watched Kitajima and Kitajima keeps his line, and his feet are together just like. And, you know, one of the experiments that I do with the kids, I just tell them to push in a perfect streamline, so they can feel it is this is exaggeration, you push in a perfect streamline, [sounds] kind of separate your feet, and you point your toes to the bottom of the pool. This is a drastic comparison, but that’s what happens. So, what happens I am in a streamline, I have speed, I open my legs, I lose speed and I pull my toes towards the bottom of the pool. I sink. So, in breaststroke in a subtle way when I finish and when my toes are not pointing up, they’re and pointing down, I am sinking. So, this other way you can change that is keep your toes close your toes just try it, try it with the starts.

Its 4:12 .I don’t know if you guys I know I have a meet my kids are we have a invitational with 600 high school kids and finals start at 5:00, but I am only away for 10 minutes, but I don’t know if I need to get out of this room or you guys need to go somewhere else or you want me to keep going? You guys okay with me keep going.

The timing is very important, like you never you know, as the hands press down, you know, you want to slightly push your hips forward. You gotta be careful because I think if you do this, you know, if I am pressing out this way and I am already moving this way my hips are moving forward too, so you want to make sure that you careful you press with the hips, but you don’t press too much.

And then, you know, you press you slide out you press a little and then you lunge forward and when you lunge forward the kick comes in its a little bit… late you don’t want to throw the hands, the head, and right away the kick. It has to come a little later, it has to be like the when the head is almost there then, I go, I accelerate and I finish. Now, something I forgot about the kick when I teach a kid to accelerate, the middle part, to go like this, doesn’t mean that, for example we do 4×25’s, and I am trying to teach the kid, and the first before we do this the kid does let’s say 15 kicks. Not because he accelerates or she accelerates that means that he has to do seventeen kicks. Makes sense? Because what the kid thinks, “oh, I got to do fast” and that’s not the idea. The idea is if “I do it right and I accelerate and I catch the water and I press, you know, I am going to move further than if I go like this.” Makes sense? And I want to hold that speed. So, in theory if they do it right instead of 15 kicks they are going to do 11 kicks or 12 kicks or whatever. So, that’s very important because, you know, when we talk about go faster speed up here they think, “I got to go faster,” and that not the case, we don’t want that. That’s inefficient.

[audience member]: They are 50 meters do they do that [number of kicks]?

[Lopez]: Yeah, well, no, I just gave a number. I have no clue some kids might do, you know, some kicks. I just gave a arbitrary number.

[audience member]: So, what do you use material or equipment to teach?

[Lopez]: I don’t really use a lot of material to teach breaststroke. One of the things that I like that we use for equipment to teach, to understand, we use a weight belt, but it’s a I know there is many different type of people makes their weight belts, But, what we do is like we get a dumbbell one of that dumbbell with 5 pounds with three holes which you can put in a barbell and then we bought this belts on Amazon, I don’t know, my assistant knows, some sort of belts that you use for a army or whatever it is. What you do is we put the belt through the holes and, like, Ryan loved to do backstroke with that, but the breaststroke isn’t flyers they swim with the weight here the five pounds or ten pounds if it’s a pro or like one of the other older guys, but no more than 10 pounds. We do that and we can do that with fins sometimes, so they can keep their body higher, but when they lunge forward they really feel it.

This is a video with a guy his best time is 2:09 long course, 200 breaststroke, but that’s you see the belt is there. The weight is always in back. What I found out, normally what I like is I watch them from the other side, because I like to watch I like to see from the profile not profile from the side like you know. So, I watch them you can see how they move they are going forward and when they take their weight they are really lunging forward and they have that feeling too Ryan Murphy, for example, for backstroke, he liked to do it a lot because he felt it if he moved if he rotated too much, he moved too much. Caleb Dressel, for example he could put a weight without a belt on the back and be start kicking in a streamline and start swimming and keep accelerating and didn’t lose the weight on his back I don’t have a video.

We probably we might have, but. I like this, I know in the past some people use like weight belts like scuba diving weight belts, and you put them here and there, and I think here above the center of gravity it works really well.

Oh I thought my friend Ralph was going to be here, so I cannot pat him because he told me Sergio I saw you talked the other day it was, so good and then I realized that he just showed up and left and was going inside, outside.

This picture is from the 2008 Olympics. That’s Joseph that’s Roxanne and myself I think it’s 4:20, so let’s any questions or anything?

[audience member]: What do you have the biggest problem with breaststroke usually?

[Lopez]: I think the biggest problem that I have with breaststrokers now a days is more with the groin and it’s because you try to teach that finish, you know, and a lot of them they try to finish a butterfly. You know, and yeah you have some issues, I think the biggest issue that you might have is because the quads get very strong and they think oh coach I have a knee problem and what happens is that their quads are too strong and they are pulling the tendons are pulling, so you have to reinforce that. You know, you have to make sure that this area is reinforced you know, but they think, “oh I have a knee problem” and many doctors, you know, here in town if one of my kids goes to a doctor and says, “yeah I have a knee problem,” this and that still the doctor doesn’t know they go to Bolles, but I have a knee problem this and that and the doctor starts talking with the kid normal and then “yeah I am a swimmer, and I go to Bolles…”, “oh, you need to rest. You are overworked, you did too much.” And, you know, the kid comes and hey I cannot do this much breaststroke this and that. They are probably wrong. Sometimes it’s because they developed too much quad muscles.

[audience member]: So, do you go along with the old school hypoxic?

[Lopez]: With the younger kids yeah, because I was always afraid of doing too much hypoxic up and down. I do hypoxic with the turns and with the breaststrokers. This year actually, I have started to implement more for hypoxic 4 under 3 up, breaking down the stroke, and doing lot of underwater and above the water. I think the breaststroke underwater is how you can feel the best ,because you have pressure on the top and pressure on the bottom, so you can feel the speed, so, you know, teaching the kid how to be in a line and everything keeping the hands and the feet always in line and always the hands and elbows in front they have a good feeling they have a good sensation so under water I think it’s very good.

Yes Ma’am?

[audience member]: While your [indiscernible] or at the end of it?

[Lopez]: Like Coach Michael like this morning talking about the relays, he did analyze when we’re allowed to do the kick he analyzed the Japanese, the couple of Asians that we had and she was telling me, “Sergio it’s better that you in a perfect streamline and you do about the kick.” And I always thought when I was a swimmer because when we swam we were not allowed to kick, but you always experimented when you had to, and I always thought if I push in an angle and if I push in an angle for example we have lines we have lines in the bottom. I tell my swimmers you think you push from the wall diagonally towards the third line for example depends on how high you are, you know, its streamline then once you get to the third line you start the pool and when you go here and you start pushing like here then you kick and change directions, so then I become the kick board, like I had mentioned before. You watch some of the Europeans or some people they enter the water and then really angle and they start the pull and they kick. More now than at the beginning because at the beginning the trend was like kick and the best streamline possible. But, I think, in my opinion I like better moving in an angle. But, we taught both. It also depends on the kids some kids push off the wall in a perfect streamline they can hold it very close to the surface of the water. Some kids don’t feel the tension of the surface of the water and if there too close to the surface of the water their feet pop up or something, because the tension is sucking them up. So, you want them to hold out you want them to avoid that change angle a little bit, so when there are about to come up their feet are not the first thing that comes up.


[audience member]: Did you create a breaststroke you wanted them to [indiscernible] technically you feel like this every time you short rest between more rest?

[Lopez]: Short rest between more rest I have always trained with a lot of rest, you know, even with my coach in Spain I did not do things, he taught me how to swim fast and he gave me time to rest. Joseph, we never did like 20×100 with 10 seconds rest or 15 seconds rest now. Then I asked him I said, “ Joseph why are we doing 8×100 on 1:30 and now were going, so fast why didn’t we do the 1:25 and then on 1:20, because at one point I would be working at a totally different energy system that I’m on, and this is what I want to accomplish,” you know if going on 1:30 and I ask you to go :57s and you go :57s, let’s move to :56s and :55s. I know I am working the same energy system and all that, but if I keep pushing if I keep adding the time it’s becoming even more the difference. We never changed, in four years I trained with him my inner wasn’t really changed.


[audience member]: When you turn back and start the kick where do you want your hand to be?

[Lopez]: From the feet?

[audience member]: Yeah, and you start working the kick where do you, where the hands is going to be when you start that–?

[Lopez]: They’re going forward like almost finished because my hands are moving very quickly, so if my lines are forward and I throw my head then my kick comes in, but my hands are really traveling. So I can keep that line and I can be longer.

[inaudible question from the audience]

[Lopez]: Like at the moment that I start lunging, it’s like you want to start thinking and then you swim fast.

[audience member]: What if they can’t get that what if they know you your breaststroke didn’t work out else be forever and they still don’t get it you start adjusting–?

[Lopez]: That would be if I can teach every single component I would have a very fast breaststroker, but, you know, you can’t. It’s very you know if you look at Rebecca Soni, Kevin Cortes, do they have, if you look at the strokes, would you think they are similar? No. But the most important aspect in my opinion, you know, I am not a scientist, I am just I have been in the water for a long time and I watch breaststroke for a long time and I can feel it, but I cannot explain it to you why you watch it and their hips are not moving, they are always across the surface. And Rebecca moves differently in the front than Cortes. They do probably kick differently if you analyze it, but this is always up. That’s the most important. You always want to try to figure it out how to keep the hips up because you might lose the speed the first 50. Let’s say that your swimmer gets out in a :28 and comes back in a 35. Well, rather if he gets out in a :29 flat then comes back in a :32 because that’s at the end of the day maybe a second slower the first 50, but three seconds faster at the end. So, an improvement of a two seconds. No more questions?

Well thank you very much.

##### asca #####

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